Class Note for ECOL 182R with Professor Bonine at UA
Class Note for ECOL 182R with Professor Bonine at UA
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Date Created: 02/06/15
Seed Plants when t Highlight inine Hm Posted 03 March 2009 ECOL1E2R UofA K E Bonine 4x Maul ahnnosonnns museum Mount ccnunsni usnvnsni vunseo vnscuu oenn sessions Wasp1m menu on 54 zen m 205 m os icl DuitmwyFrsenl Urali quotww non Mllllonsnlvua sain Evolution of Plants Horse 39iil s and ferns Pter idop iy l39es reElace d bx The Evolution of Seed Plants 7 Late in the Devonian some plants developed growth thickened woody stems of xylem First species with secondary growth were the prugymnasperms seedless vascular plants now extinct Wood proliferated xylem gives support and allows plants to grow above their competitors for sunlight 4v Seed Plants Took Over Surviving seed plants fall into two groups and cycads flowering plants Cycas revoivis UA Campus Gingko Mobs 54 Gymnosperms Four major groups of living gymnosperms 39 Cycads Cycadaphyfa MO species sinkgas Eingaphyfa one iiving species Eingu biuba 39 Ene39ophytes nefapliyfa QO species in 3 genera Conifers Cuniferuphyfa OO species iiie cone bearers Cycads and Ginkgo sfill have Gymnosperms Exieni gymnosperms are probably a clude Gymnosperm quot iiie ovules and seeds are noi proiecied by ovary or fruii tissue enninnnnss w sneepnsims 15 engagist vim cycad ici Wewilschiamimbiis gneiop vie Gymnosperms in Sequoiaaenaron giganieiim Evolu rion of Seed Plan rs Gamefophy i e generafion is reduced even fur39fher39 Than if is in ferns Haploid gamefophy fe develops par39fly or enfir ely while aH39ached To The spor39ophyfe Spovophyls 2n Nonvascular Spowphyle 2n eed ess VCISC LII or Gamemohyle nl Gamelnphyte n usiaeinmmzu39vmv nemmnw quot EvquTion of Seed PIanTs Seed planTs are heTerosporous produce Two Types of spores Only one meioTic producT survives and develops inTo The megagarneTophyTe by miToTic divisions MegagarneTophyTe haploid produces an egg by miTosis MegagarneTophyTe houses The nexT sporophyTe generaTion when egg is ferTilized Gymnosperm w linusmgosn Example quot Megusporungium cone Microsporungium sTrobiIi Uri n room an Famale SpomphytelZn gamelopnyteln Male gametopnyles n z Amher Flowers Ovary Angiosperm crewmani mmmmmmm EvquTion of Seed PIanTs Megasporangiurn is surrounded by inTegurnenT made of sporophyTic sTrucTures Megasporangiurn and The inTegurnenT TogeTher form The which develops inTo a EvquTion of Seed PIanTs In The microsporungium microspores produce The male gumeTophyTe or pollen grain wiTh sparupalenin in walls The mosT resistant biological compound known ReproducTion becomes of in some Gymnosperms How do you Think This uffecTed The evquTion and diversification of seed plunTs Conifers Pine Cones A cone is a modified stem bearing a tight cluster of scales reduced branches specialized for reproduction Megaspores are produced here Strobilus conelike structure scales are modified leaves Microspores are produced here Recall that evolution by natural selection typically involves modification of existing structures Somali moan we 4 Spauwml39 E yum pry 5m w It gt I savor 9 i N we Mml w m n Mww mquot esiisn WWW mi W em WWW mallow Fm W manned WW quotquot Em i M mom on W tie ww WW Evolution of Seed Plants Seeds liave tissues from three generations 1 Seedcaafdevelops from the sporopliyte parent integument 2 Female gametopliytic tissue from the next generation contains a nutrient supply for eveloping embryo 3 Embryo is the new sporophyte generation Pine Life Cycle Wind carries pollen grains from strobilus to cone Two sperm travel through pollen tube one degenerates after fertilization Noie inai pollinizaiion does NOT equal fertilization Evolution of Seed Plants After fertilization diploid zygote divides to produce an embryonic sporophyte Growth is then suspended the embryo enters a dormant stage with the end product being a multicellular seed How might suspension of growth be a fitness advantage Evolution of Seed Plants Seeds are wellprotected resting stages May remain viable for many years germinating when conditions are favorable Seed coat protects from drying out as well as predators Many seeds liave adaptations for dispersal WE Evolution of Seed Plants Seeds and Secondary Growth are the main reasons for the success of seed plants currently the dominant life forms in terrestrial environments Angiosperms Oldest angiosperm fossils are Cretaceous 140 million years old Radiation was explosive angiosperms become dominant in only 60 million years Over 250000 species exist today Female gametophyte even more reduced usually only seven cells Double Fertilization amp Endosperm Microgametophyte has two male gametes Nucleus of one combines with egg The other nucleus combines with two haploid nuclei of female gametophyte to form a fri oidnuceus becomes the endosperm Endosperm nourishes developing sporophyte Origin of Land Plants classmcanun cum plants novmsuuuuims mam Hum usianuc Woman Mllwwx emu mm AWLmo WM um basally lrwn in winml mu m minanoou Wins W inlully in vacuum rum mew Document one anwllsnwnk amount talc Plumnuhm was Matnu momma ammo lmu onions immunm van sew mm GYWan museum ovum compound m WWI soon so on incomes rams Elnkynvww Elmv Dsl ms an stew lawn snninino loom urvalnwvu Momma Mu nnwulllsul scam unallle minnow men Sea in cums nn l ler omen m We tummy plm39n anooom eraii umuphym morn new inducing out Angiosperm Synapomorpl39lies Xylem with vessel elements and fibers Phloem with companion cells Triploid endosperm Ovules and seeds Carpals Angiosperm enclosed seedquot the ovules and seeds are enclosed in a modified leaf called a carpel Carpels provide protection and may interact with pollen to prevent self pollination Flowers Stamens bear Fehl microsporangia consist of filament and anther Cavpels bear megasporangia One or more carpels form the pistil stigma style and ovary Flowers Perfect flowers have but mega and microsporangia Imperfect flowers either mega or microsporangia Monoecious onehousedquot male and female flowers occur on the same plant Dioecious twohousedquot male and female flowers on different plants lcl renwsshim sevscwm urthIIIxuulvmll Flowers Petals corolla and sepals calyx are modified leaves Often play a role in attracting pollinators The calyx often protects the flower bud before it opens Inflorescence grouping of flowers Differenl families have characferisl ic l39ypes Unlbcls l3 Winlmsanmms w AegDDOCllum imam Raytluwurs Dlsk my someone wheel Flowers Long styles in pistils and long filaments in stamens length increases likelihood of pollination either making them more accessible to insects or to catch the wind W AnnSS o nonc WI Flowers Mos ongiosperms are onimolpollino red by insec rs birds and ba rs Many flowers en l39ice pollino rors wi rh nec l39or and pollen Plants and Their pollino rors hove coevolved some relo l39ionships are very specific 34 Angiosperm Lifecycle Zygo i39e develops into an embryo consists of an embryonic axis will become stem and roof and 1 or 2 cofyledons seed leaves Co i39yledons absorb and digest The endosperm some become pho139osyn139he139ic Ovary and seeds develop in l o frui i s Frui i profec i s seed and aids in dispersal eg can become a H39ached To or ea i39en by animals as Frui rs Simple frui rs develop from one corpel Aggregafe frui rs develop from several carpels Mu pe frui rs form from a cluster of flowers Accessoryfrui rs develop from parts other Than corpels A www bio miami emmuchhalahame hfml A 9 3905 P6 m am my 39 599mm LIfecyc le Seam 33 m Mmu u m 9 W rm gamma mm Mm m um m 7Han l7l l W 39 minim quotMWquot WI h Poqu 4 Mmmmmrn 39M 392 9 n WWW 8 Summing mm 39 quotI an oomw Mmimmmup39uiu my Palm name 2 39 Ego Yubo cull Mums 599mm urs 3e Flun 191 A BI Accessory Angiosperm DiversificaTion MosT angiosperms are in Two clades OTher clades include sTar anise and relaTives waTer lilies and magnoliids MonocoTs w my Hammer 3 Wm w Palms Lilies Grasses lCl L mm in us u m n PlanTs SupporT Our World PlanTs conTribuTe To ecosysfem services processes by which The environmenT mainTains resources ThaT benefiT humans PlanTs are primary producers phoTosynThesis Traps energy and carbon making Them available To consumers Angiosperm DiversificaTion Dommm mummy ul Camels mum musmv seeds in mm SEW Candst hy lbw mmzc nd mu m we mqu Eudicols will xi w w comma lBl Camus m Eud icoTs Cl Rom mesa uri Hum 711 PIanTs SupporT Us Seed planTs are our primary food source Twelve are mosT imporTanT rice coconuT wheaT corn poTaTo sweeT poTaTo cassava sugarcane sugar beeT soybean common bean banana Half of The world39s populaTion geTs mosT of iTs food energy from rice mnm P Ianfs s uppor f Some Medicinal Plants and Their Products Pkwucv Pumsounc mmwmcmow M New mr um emamn Many medicines come from seed planfs NW N 5 amgw 0quot u n n Bmmehm Pmaawle stem annulung Hisue muammanun Mad ICIHES are found by SCquot quot 9 large mgnaxm mum Stveugmemng haan muscle mnmmn numbers of planfs or screening large EpMan Ephedu Ensmgnusavmngesnnn numbers of chemical compounds Mammal Japalwssmim Re xeiolwughing Eflrnobofanisfs also discover medicinal WW 0Wquot W mamm a x c n bark T m m I planfs by sfudymg people and Their quotmm quotm m m Equot quotW Taxel Fauna yew Treahuem cl nvanan and may cancels uses of planfs allover The world Tuhmumnna Cum mam As musme relaxer m surgery Wman Fem4mm Trealmem ol laukam a nnd Iympmm
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