Nutrition & Physical Activity
Nutrition & Physical Activity 30423
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This 0 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jessica Martin on Wednesday January 20, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 30423 at a university taught by Dr.Shah in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 38 views.
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I'm really struggling in class and this study guide was freaking crucial. Really needed help, and Jessica delivered. Shoutout Jessica, I won't forget!
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Date Created: 01/20/16
11215 Nutrition notes Essential Nutrient must meet three characteristics to be identi ed this way Removing it from the diet will cause health issues o If it s added back it can restore health if you re still recoverable 0 Vitamin A when added back can restore vision night blindness is a symptom of Vitamin A de ciency o Must serve a speci c biological function 0 Why study Nutrition and Physical Activity 0 Nutrition To promote health Reduce the risk of chronic diseases to prevent de ciency diseases like red meatcortizol in amationalzheimer39s performance To meet the nutrient requirements of the body To prevent an excessive amount of nutrients causing toxicity vit A easily reached 0 Physical Activity To preventreduce chronic disease risk To understand FIT type of activity To know the nutrient needs of a physically active person 0 Leading causes of death 1Heart disease CVD 2 cancer 3chronic lower respiratory diseases and 4Stroke these 4 account for 23 of ALL adult deaths in the US 60 of all deaths 0 Contributing factors genetics didn t say diet physical activity level smoking leading factor excessive alcohol consumption Smoking is the leading cause of preventable diseases but it ll one day be obesity lactivity lifestyle education every year decreased taxes on packs clear air policies so less exposure obesity hasn t reduced 0 Epigenetics the expression of our genes depends on the environment in which you are placeddidn t talk about 0 Classes of Nutrients 6 carbs lipids protein vit minerals water 0 Macronutrients provide energy and are in LARGE amounts carbohydrates lipids and proteins 0 Micronutrients have vital functions but don t provide energy and are needed in small amounts vitamins and minerals Carbohydrates are organic molecules CHOnervous sys relies o lnsoluble ber l in wheat bran whole grain vegiregulate bowl movements 0 4 kilocalories in 1 gram 0 Simple CHO Monosaccharides eg glucose fructose Disaccharides eg sucrose glucose fructose 0 Complex CHO Polysaccharides thousands of linked glucose molecules Eg starches corn potatoes peas Dietary ber insolubebrand Cannot be broken down by digestive processes 0 Provides bulkdecreases serum cholesterol 0 Bene ts in the diet contributes to weight loss decreases blood cholesterol slows down the absorption of glucose prevents constipation Lipid made up of CHO also Lipids fats and oilMORE DENSE o 1 g 9 kilocalories o Triglyceride glycerol backbone 3 fatty acid tails Saturated vs unsaturated fatty acids determine cholesterol levels 0 Fatty acids Saturated these tend to be solid at room temperature eg butterlardfatty meat redpoultry skin high fat milkdairy Most of our saturated fats come from animal products fatty meats butter lard poultry skin high fat milkdairy Most of these increase your risk for CVD by increasing LDLbad Unsaturated fats these tend to be liquid at room temp eg most plant oils Replacing SFs with USFs will decrease your risk for CVD by lowering HDLgood peanut sun ower seeds corn oil soy oil 0 Proteins made up of CHONSsometimes S always the rest 0 1 gram has 4 kcal 0 Functions hormones enzymes RBC WBC hemoglobin maintenance of uid balance acidbase balance Lack of protein causes edema water retention 0 Amino acids the building blocks for protein There are 20 of them 9 essential 11 nonessential essential can be converted to nonessential not via versa 0 Vitamins C H N P S etc needed in small amounts mill or micrograms Be careful how much you consume 0 Functions needed for chemical reactions 0 Type 13 vitamins Fat Soluble A D E and K o A amp D if over consumed which are the most likely to do so you can end up accumulating them and having toxicity Prego women with to much A can create a toxic baby o Watersoluble vitamins ALL 8 B vitamins and Vitamin C 0 These are fragile and easily destroyed by cooking They are more readily excreted 0 Minerals are inorganic and micronutrients micronutrients needed in small amounts extracellular and intercellular fuild balance calcium phosphorous magnesium needed for bones teeth extracellular minerals maintain blood volume sodium needed for proper nerve transmission soak veg in water to reduce 0 Functions needed for chemical reactions uid balance in bones and teeth nerve synapses etc Cannot be destroyed by heat They will leach into the water during cooking boiling or soaking in water Calcium and phosphorous major o 16 essential minerals Major vs trace minerals Water composes about 5070 water 0 Functions chemical reactions transport of oxygen and nutrients to cells temperature regulation Phytochemicals quotplantbased chemicalsquot these are plant components in plant foods act as antioxidants 0 Over 1000 have been found carotenoids icopen in pomegranates blueberries 0 Although they aren t essential nutrients they can help protect from chronic disease antioxidants 0 These are physiologically active compounds and they may protect from heart disease cancer etc Examples lsothiocyanates broccoli cabbage cauli ower prevent cancer growth and even death of cancer Resveratrol red wine red grapes 0 Alcohol NOT an essential nutrient o 1 gm 7 kcal o 1 serving 12 oz beer 0 study in Scotland given alcohol prior to meal time and the other group nonalcoholicljlalcohol created greater amounts of food consumptions empty cal activated feeding center dis inhibitionnot aware of food intake 11416 Ch 1 cont 0 Energy 0 Energy is expressed in kilocalories calories are too small to signi cantly measure energy Capital C denotes kilocalories 1kcal1000 calories calories the amount of heat it takes to raise the temp of lg of water by 1degree Celcius Percent Daily Energy from CHO Protein and Fat 0 In class calc The American Diet taken from samples of the American population NHANES and continuing survey 15 energy from protein 33 energy from fat 52 from Carbs Food and nutrition board institute of medicine nation academy of sciences guidelines 1035 protein 2035 fat added sugarssoda juice dried fruit and re ne carbswhite bread white ricecauses steep rising glucose lcreating to many triglycerides more insulin neededinked to diabetes 4565 carbs Steap CDC and 0 Recommendations come from the NAS We meet the amount of nutrients but not the type of nutrients 0 Problems with the diet Many of our proteins come from animal sources high in saturated fats Many fats come from animals Many CHOs comes from added and re ned sugars These break down quickly and contribute to high blood glucose and insulin levels which cause additional hunger o Hyperinsulinemia high insulin levels in the blood caused by abnormal lipids There is a lack of essential vitamins and minerals because of the diet Healthy People 2020 0 Goals Prevent the onset of chronic disease and the disabilities associated with it Eliminate health disparities by income and socioeconomic status try to make optimal health accessible to everyone Create healthier environments 0000 O 0 Physical Activity Objectives See slides o Desire to Eat 0 De nitions Hunger the physiological drive to eat a biological process that s controlled internally Appetite controlled by external factors Satiety a feeling of fullnesssatisfaction 23rcl protients from animal sources 60 dietary fat from animal sources 50 CHO from added sugars and re ne productsbllod glucose insulin and lipids hunger obesity poor nutrition status Na Ca K ber Vit 812 and Vit E 0 Healthy people 2020 Better quality of lives and longer with preventable diseases injury disability and premature death Address health disparities high economic status ethnicities race Environmental factors safety Promote good quality of life and healthy behaviors Physical activity objectives for healthy people 2020 0 Physical education classes as a requirement 0 More parks 0 Physical activity in after school care 0 Legislation Desire to eat Hungerphysiological drive to eat controlled by internal body mechanisms Appetite l psychological drive to eat controlled by external factors Satietya state in which there is no longer a desire to eat feeling of satisfaction Factors that Control Hunger and Satiety O O O Hypothalamus contains the feeding center and satiety center 0 When the satiety center is damaged you will continue eating 0 When the feeding center is damaged you will starve Hormones that Affect these Levels Hormones that increase hunger see slides These activate your feeding center and make you want to eat o Ghrelin made in the stomach levels are high when you don t eat Hormones that cause satiety see slides These stimulate the satiety center and make you feel full when the satiety hormones released from Gut by GLP one up the vagus nerve not on exam Hormones and brain chemicals lthose that increase hunger Neuropeptide Y ghrelin endorphins and cortisolghrelin levels after weight lossThat s that causes satiety leptin cholecystokinin peptide YY glucagonIikepeptidel serotonin and dopamine leptin suppresses NPY amp ghrelin production and triggers the satietycenter o Lectin made in the adipose cells which are endocrine organs Activates the satiety center and makes you feel full They also suppressdecrease the production of Neuropeptide Y and Ghrelin strong hormones that make you feel full 0 Other hormones made in the small intestine Cholecystokinin peptide YY and glucagonlike peptide1 These make you feel full during digestion Meal Size and Composition 0 Meal sizes 0 Bulk mainy sourced in ber and waterbased foods This provides better satiety 0 Example applescause stomach 2 descend 0 Dietary fat gastric inhibitory peptide slows gastric emptying l we need some in the diet to control gastric emptying 0 Protein also helps with satiety o Dieters have a 0 Factors that Affect Energy Intake Weather time stress money exams Ads smell watching others eat talking about food schedules time social gatheringssituations amount of physical activity avaHabH y Portion sizes if people are given more food they will eat more It affects how much we eat Wansink study Bowl of candy sometimes on employee desk desk drawer or a few inches away Collected all the candy bowls on desk 9 in desk 6 out of sit 3 per day 0 Never talked about With movie goers and large tubs of popcorn Rolls study gave 3 and 5year olds Small Medium and Large snack portions The 55 ate every bit of each portion but the 3s ate the same amount each time 0 Children are trained to quotclean their platesquot Choicessandwhich study the more options you have the more you will eat Availabilitycandy study Wansink Study bowls of candy placed in different spots in a work space The candy bowls in plain sight were visited more Advertising value marketing specials that are advertiseddeals make us want to purchase Price and promotion labels vending machine study 0 French study decreases the price of lowfat snacks in vending machines for a month Then she placed lowfat labels next to lowfat snacks Which one led to more purchases Changing the price was more effective although both increased the sales of low fat snacks Alcohol increases food intake 0 Study alcoholno alcohol before lunch 0 Why it stimulates the feeding center and it lowers our inhibition Sleep watch what happens to hunger levels when you don t sleep enough 78 hours required 0 Lack of sleep increases ghrelin production and decreases leptin levels you also have more time to eat Socioeconomic status those with lower SES usually have poor diets Education the more you know the more you WON T do 0 Access to healthy foods depending on where you live 0 Affordability depending on where you live 0 Factors that Affect your Physical Activity Levels Sleep Accessibility to tness resources Time Peers Food intake Job access gender age energy levels occupation related to PA jobs less active Income Location Weather etc SES education where you live for safety affordability for exercise facilities Where you live Lack of time Automation lots of machines to do stuff for us drive wash clothes etc Motivation TV games internet etc sleeping actually causes you to expend more calories than watching TV 0 Assignment 1 o Read article in Ch 1 Slideswhat you consume as an infant will in uence you longer term 0 Food Record What kindtype of food How much food weigh 0 Analysis of Food Record 11915 Bring nutrients report 0 Food Prep Assignment due NEXT THURSDAY 0 Email group Ch 2 Guidelines for a Healthy Diet 0 Tools for a Healthy Diet there are lots of things to help 0 Food Philosoohv that works lots of factors that come into play Variety you should have a wide variety of foods within all the food groupsdiary vegi fruit grains protein 0 Why to get all the nutrients that you need 2 It s more interesting 3 Phytochemicals plantbased chemicals and antioxidants focusing on different colors will ensure that you re getting access to a wide range of these chemicals 0 How can you can increase your phytochemicals intake Chicken vegi side zucchini carrots spinach salad with mixed berries Balance making sure you have a food item from all the 5 food groups covering all bases Moderation portion sizes Don t overconsume It s not what you eat it s HOW MUCH you eat You must compensate for your amounts Nutrient Density how many calories compared to how much nutritional value Nutrientdense foods fruits milk vegetables Emptycalorie foods candy sugar chips soda Enerdv Densitv determined bv enerdv contentweidht of the food ldividel Energydense foods have a lot of calories but don t weigh much nuts candies cookies fried foods fast foods These contribute to weight gain 0 Low energydense foods weigh a lot but don t have a lot of calories many fruits and vegetables 0 How Could Your Nutritional Status Be Measured see BOOK 0 Dietary Reference lntakes DRls O 0 Objectives To help you meet your nutrient needs prevent de ciencies and toxicities from overconsuming certain nutrients Promote health and prevent chronic conditions See textbooklast few pages important RDAs these vary by age and gender Usually set 20 higher to compensate for certain people s absorption de ciency Deviations can cause toxicity or de ciency Al adequate intake for nutrients we don t know a lot about this number gives you some idea Eg sodium potassium EER used to gure out what your energy levels are TUl don t go beyond these they can cause negative effects on yourhea h
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