POLS 210 Assignment 1 and Measurement
POLS 210 Assignment 1 and Measurement POLS 210
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Justice Notetaker on Wednesday January 20, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to POLS 210 at Ball State University taught by Nishikawa in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 40 views. For similar materials see Political Science Research Methods in Political Science at Ball State University.
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Date Created: 01/20/16
Introduction to Assignment 1 Major Goals: Learn political science research methods Science Objective Theory, hypothesis, observations Using data Quantitative analysis Compare Generalization Cause & effects Bivariate & multivariate analysis Research Process Research question Literature review Theory & hypothesis Methods/ Operationalization Testing hypothesis Stats Conclusion How to pick your research question Examples: Why are some countries are more likely to be involved in international conflicts than others? Why do some countries have a higher level of democratic performance than others? Units of analysis Countries States Individuals NO normative questions Cant use the word “should” (too opinionated) NO factual questions “What’s the population of China?” Only ONE outcome factor (dependent variable) No changes over time Measurement Concepts of measurement Labels of observable phenomena Ideas EX: world peace, political trust, gender gap, etc. Problems in Operationalization Operationalization: theory to data Concepts are multidimensional Liberalism EX: social (gay rights, abortion) Econ. (size of gov’t, welfare) Concepts and variables Theory data Broad specific EX: political participation Reliability and validity (ON TEST) Reliability: consistency, same results Validity: intention, are you measuring what you wanted Inflation: when the sample population is larger than the true population Measurement Error Systematic Error validity issues Random Error reliability issues Statistically can’t get rid of systematic errors be cause they are more difficult to deal with Units of analysis (again) Countries States Individuals Difference between individual & aggregate level data Individual test scores average test score Individual income average income Individual background % minority Ecological Fallacy: using aggregate level data to answer individual level research questions Research question and data should be at the same level Levels of measurement Nominal: with categories, without direction (no order) EX: gender, race, ethnicity, religion Ordinal: with categories, with direction (can be ranked) EX: age, agree strongly, agree somewhat, disagree Interval/ratio: with direction, without categories (numbers) EX: dollar amount, percentages, ages (25, 10, 15, etc.) Most sophisticated
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