HIST 170 Lecture Notes: Week #1
HIST 170 Lecture Notes: Week #1 HIST 170
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Lesley Bui on Wednesday January 20, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 170 at Colorado State University taught by Derek Everett in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 83 views. For similar materials see World History, Ancient-1500 in History at Colorado State University.
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Date Created: 01/20/16
HIST 170 Lecture Notes: Week #1 The Beginning • Homo sapiens (“thinking man”) and the Outmigration from Africa o Started by our past as hunter/gatherers § Always in search of newer, better “stuff” therefore this inspired the outmigration • Paleolithic (C. 100k-10k Y.A.) o Forming bands-small groups of people o There are small groups of people because of the idea: “the less food you have, the less people you can support” • Neolithic (C. 10k Y.A.) “New Stone Age” o Changing relationship with the world around us o We begin to create and shape the environment instead of vice versa; just reacting to our environment o Agriculture: § The response to a global problem: food shortage § Farming gives more control on food supply and therefore more control in aspects of life o Consequences of Agriculture: § Sedentism: sedentary life (can’t be nomadic), individuals begin to contract diseases such as obesity, heart disease, due to static life § Private Property: the notion of control over land, the desire to maintain § Social Regulation: there is an increase in people, therefore we think about how we need to govern/control ourselves, the need for structure § Labor Specialization: the increase of people equals a decrease in farmers needed, more specialization of jobs in the society o The beginning of domestic agriculture o Domesticating livestock o Around the world, everything shifted from hunter/gatherer to agriculture at around the same time o The process of experimentation and shifting from hunter/gatherer to agriculture took around 200-400 years o Humans were evolved to be nomadic, yet agriculture and farming was the most significant shift for humanity o More food = more people = more problems/complications o Civilization: a large group of people living in an area o By 5000 B.C. agriculture was dominating most parts of the world • The Importance of Rivers to Early Civilizations o Rivers were essential to large early civilizations o Reliable fresh water source that generally can be controlled o Used for transportation and communication • Common traits of Early Global Societies o Knowledge of your environment § Especially important because of sedentary lifestyle § *People either had to move or be in control of the negatives of the environment in order to prosper o Religious system designed around the natural world § Polytheism (many gods) • Every aspect of life had a god associated with it § Monotheism (one god) • In early civilizations, this was seen as a risky, reckless practice § Spiritual structure was created • Pastoralists o Groups who choose to remain nomadic because of their cultural beliefs and continued to live as hunter/gatherers § Lived on the outside of civilizations o They believed that farmers and sedentary life were symbolic of weakness and that way of life was pointless o Therefore will look at sedentary life as a target o Occasionally pastoralists would raid civilizations and instead of leaving, will take over what they have conquered and make it as their own and stay § This is due to the appeal of certain civilizations that seemed better than their own, more desperate and unsure existence • Metals and Mankind: Copper, Bronze, and Iron o Copper: § Easy to find § Aesthetic appeal § Easy to work with § However, was too soft and needed a way to strengthen it • This led to the blending of minerals o Bronze § Combination of copper, tin, and lead § Much stronger, more useful as a tool/weapon § However, difficult to make o Iron § Easier to find than copper § Not as aesthetically pleasing § Not as complicated to make/work with § Strong and reliable o Around 1500 B.C., iron first comes into play § There is a social, military, and technological shift § Violence becomes more common and constant § Is it because of the revolution of metal technology that led to the increase in violence? § This then led to a shift in gender roles and influence • Men took more control in society and restricted the power of women • General decrease in sexual equality • Who is the “First Civilization”? o It was actually a hunter/gatherer society called: The Natufians § Located in the East Mediterranean Sea area around 11000 B.C. (before the shift to agriculture) § There was evidence of small cities, art was found in buildings § However within a couple hundred years, all Natufian societies were abandoned • The reason why remained a mystery until researchers of different fields got together: o There was a flood that started in Canada that was believed to have begun from the aftermath of the late Ice Age. Cold water from the ice melted and built up until it flooded toward the Gulf stream, flooding the warm water and disrupting the air and currents around where the Natufians thrived o Therefore the Natufians were so close to becoming the first real civilization before the flood struck • Mediterranean to Mesopotamia o Fertile Crescent: § Provided very fertile farming land § Not very useful anymore because it has been farmed for the past 6000 years • The Firsts of Sumerian Civilization o They were villages around the Tigris and Euphrates rivers § Later became prosperous cities o Sumstians were peaceful and stable—lasted for thousands of years o 1 society to produce cities (100,000+ people) § Takes a lot of work and organization o 1 to develop the wheel § They were successful because they had big draft animals to pull st using the wheel and therefore lift heavy weight o 1 written language: Cuneiform § Pictograms § Written on clay tablets to keep records; from lineage, to stories, to business records o One of the 1 math systems § Counting and measurement based on units of 60 • Still used today (60 minutes in an hours, a circle divided in increments of 60, etc.) o Culture in Ancient Sumer § The epic of Gilgamesh o Architecture § Massive structures, temples § Ziggurat • Religion was perceived as important because such a large structure was built in dedication to their faith • This also portrayed great social organization § Sumerian existence was based on fear: they must show submission to the gods by building them these massive structures o From 5000-2300 B.C. the Sumerians reigned as #1 • Semitic Pastoralists o ~2300 B.C. the Akkadians conquered the Sumerians and took over, taking the civilization as their own o ~2100 B.C. it was conquered again by the Amorites § The Amorites felt that they needed to build a city of their own, therefore they created the city of Babylon
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