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PSYC 3240 Notes

by: Megan Hart

PSYC 3240 Notes PSYC 3240

Megan Hart
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About this Document

Notes of 14 January and 19 January covering Chapter 1 and part of Chapter 2 for Physiological Psychology.
Physiological Psychology
Dr. Claudio Cantalupo
Class Notes
Psychology, physiological psychology, Biology




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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Megan Hart on Wednesday January 20, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 3240 at Clemson University taught by Dr. Claudio Cantalupo in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 69 views. For similar materials see Physiological Psychology in Psychlogy at Clemson University.


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Date Created: 01/20/16
14 January 2016 Chapter 1:  Physiological Psychology o Branch of psychology that studies the relationship between behavior and the body (brain)  Neuroscience: multidisciplinary study of the nervous system (all aspects: anatomical, chemical, physiological, developmental, etc.)  Origins of Physiological Psychology o Mind-Brain Problem  What is the nature of the mind and the brain?  What is the relationship between the mind and the brain? o Two Philosophical Views  Dualism  Mind and brain belong to different worlds (non- physical world vs. physical world)  The mind controls the brain by “interacting” with it  Monism  Mind and brain belong to the same world  Physical world = materialism  The mind is the “product” of physical processes in the brain o René Descartes (17 century philosopher)  Dualist: mind (non-physical)  body (physical)  Realized the body does not matter, compared to the soul  Body cannot survive or heal without the power of the soul  Body of every organism (human + animals) is a machine  Can discover how the machine is built and how it works  In humans, the mind interacts with the body at a single point in the brain  Pineal gland  Put emphasis on the physical explanation of behavior  Provided a model of how the nervous system works  Model: proposed mechanism for how something works  Descartes’ Hydraulic Model  Nerves are hollow tubes where a fluid (“animal spirit”) flows  Pineal gland pumps the fluid through brain and nerves  Mind (soul) tilts the Pineal gland to direct fluid to specific nerves  specific muscles inflate (move)  Can be tested! o Galvani (1700’s) and his frogs: nerves are like wires conducting electricity o Helmholtz (1800’s): how come nerves conduction speed in only 90 Ft/sec?  Nature & Nurture / Heredity & Environment / Innate & Learned o Basic philosophical question driving psychology (along with mind/body problem)  How much of Brain & Behavior is due to Heredity?  How much of Brain & Behavior is due to the Environment?  How do heredity and environment interact? o Must understand basic genetics to study brain and behavior  Vocabulary Refresher o Gene: basic, smallest unit of heredity  Found on chromosomes (inside the nucleus of each cell) o Humans have 46 chromosomes in 23 pairs o A gene is a portion of chromosome o A chromosome is composed of DNA  Deoxyribonucleic Acid: double-stranded chain of molecules (bases): adenine, thymine, guanine, cytosine o Genes & their Effects  1) Dominant: produces its effects regardless of which gene it is paired with  2) Recessive: produces its effects only when paired with the same recessive gene on the other chromosome 19 January 2016  Genes and their effects o Dominant: produces its effects regardless of which gene it is paired with o Recessive: produces its effects only when paired with the same recessive gene on the other o Heterozygous: different genes  Different genotypes; phenotypes look the same o Characteristics of a person determined by several gene pairs  Height  genes code the ranges of height  In study of twins with MRI of how much gray matter was found  neurons and synapses show degree of similarity and difference in color to show variations in neurons that make up the gray matter  Identical twins  large areas of difference create lots of blue in the MRI, because environment is the cause of change mentally in identical twins  Polygenic: the features that are an accumulation of many genes Chapter 2:  Structure and Function of the Nervous System  Microscopic Level o Neurons: specialized cells that receive information and send it to other cells to carry information within the brain and throughout the rest of the body o About 100 billion neurons in the brain o Glial Cells: cells that provide structural and functional support for neurons (dendrite, nucleus, soma, myelin sheath [special kind of glial cells], axon, presynaptic terminals, muscle fiber) o (1) Motor Neuron: “Output”  receives information from other neuron(s)  carries information to muscle or gland cells o (2) Sensory Neuron: “Input”  Receives a particular type of sensory information  Carries information to other neuron(s) (i.e. axon, soma, nucleus, sensory endings, and cross section of skin/skin surface) o Out  motor neurons; In  sensory neurons o Processed in the center (i.e. “black box”)  The more complex the brain, the more complex it is  Provides a functional response within the body (example: reflexes); simplest form of behavior o Functional, reactive behavior caused just by conjoining the input & output  Adaptive vs. Non-adaptive o Adaptive: any trait that carries an increased chance of sending copies of its genes, or is neutral o Maladaptive: no ethnical standard of content; just means a higher chance of sending copies of its genes into the next generation  Limitation of implementing behavior simply by hardwiring without the black box (example: sneezing) o Hardwired; you can’t mess with it o Experience will have virtually no effect on it o But your environment may not be conductive to the adaptive behaviors (i.e. the hardwiring) which might change in several generations.  Interneurons: connect one neuron to another in a particular part of the Central Nervous System (CNS)  Glial Cells o Oligodendrocytes: build myelin around axons in brain and spinal cord (node of Ranvier, myelin sheath, axon, Schwann cell) o Schwann Cells: build myelin around axons in the periphery (spreads all around the axon like a hotdog)  Neural Membrane o Crucial for the neuron’s ability to carry information (phospholipid molecules, protein) o The cell gets information on how to build its own membrane by a self-organized physical o When placed in liquid molecules it doesn’t mix, but they will self-organize (water molecules) o Transmembrane proteins: not self-organized; generic information is needed o Phospholipid (fat derivatives) o Protein Molecules o Heads are attracted to water; arrow oriented toward it o Tails are repelled by the water; arrow oriented away from it o Channels: function to compartmentalize; let in and out whether they are open or closed o Pumps: physical action – can push against the neutral or the grain o Polarization: difference in electrical charge (voltage) between the inside and outside of the cell; similar to the definition of “potential”  Tiny difference between the voltage in the inside and outside of the neuron when they are “resting”  Charged when it is doing nothing (i.e. “resting potential”)  Anything electrically charged cannot go through the membrane for physical reasons, unless there is a channel, which there isn’t for ions.


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