Class Note for ECOL 182R with Professor Bonine at UA 2
Class Note for ECOL 182R with Professor Bonine at UA 2
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Date Created: 02/06/15
Seed PIanTs PosTed 03 March 2009 ECOL 182R UofA K E Bonine 4E The EvoluTion of Seed PlanTs LaTe in The Devonian some planTs developed growth Thickened woody sTems of xylem FirsT species wiTh secondary growTh were The progymnosperms seedless vascular planTs now exTincT Wood proliferaTed xylem gives supporT and allows planTs To grow above Their compeTiTors for sunlighT 49 Rise of Gymnosperms Angiosperms seed plants dominant dominant Nonseed vascular pianis Seed ems Frogymnosperms 417 354 290 243 205 144 55 13 Quaternary Present Millions afyears ago LIFE 3 gure 251 ammumwwm m WNW k i H mm Seed Plan39rs Took Over39 Surviving seed plan rs full info Two groups and cycads flowering plan rs Micrcspnrss and a Gymnosperms megaspures J quotgcanra rs Wig Common ancesmr 51 Evolu rion of Plan rs Hor39se39FEi ls and ferns Pfer39idop y res replaced by 500 Angiasperrm 40 4 300 E 200 Gymnasporms lUU Pteiidopliyles 511 c lPiTri i i K r 43 409 360 296 25 206 144 65 2 Millions oi years before presenl Figure 25 Terrestrial plant species richness Ferns gym nosperms and angiospcrms have in turn dominated the world s flora Modified from Signor 1990 52 Living fossils Gingko b WTriassic Gymnosper39ms Four major groups of living gymnosperms Cycads Cycadophyfa MO species 39 Ginkgos Ginkgophyfa one living species Ginkgo bioba Gnefophyfes 6nefop1y139a 9O species in 3 genera Conifers Conferophyfa OO species The cone bearers Cycads and Ginkgos s rill have 56 B Ginkgo biioba t quot A En cephaiarfos villosus CYCCld C Weiwitschia mirabiiis Di Seaumadendmn aiuanteum 58 Evolu rion of Seed Plan rs Gamefophyfe gener a on is reduced even fur Ther Than if is in fer ns Haploid gameTophyTe develops par le or39 enTir39ely while aTTached To The spor39ophyfe 59 Sporophyte 2n Nonvascular39 Sporophy39te 2n 77 Gametophyte n I 3ng Gametophyte n LlFEsaFigum29jPanl mmmmymmmwm mmwm w 5 Female S oro h e 2n gametophyten Male p p Yt gametophytesn Anther Ovary Angiosper39m LIFE 39 Figure 293 Pan 2 m mmmummnm mu I m EvoluTion of Seed PlanTs Seed planTs are heTerosporous produce Two Types of spores Only one meioTic producT Survives and develops inTo The megagameTophyTe by miToTic divisions MegagameTophyTe haploid produces an egg by miTosis MegagameTophyTe hOUSes The nexT sporophyTe generaTion when egg is ferTilized 62 EvoluTion of Seed PlanTs Megasporangium is Surrounded by inTegumenT made of sporophyTic sTrucTures Megasporangium and The inTegumenT TogeTher form The which develops inTo a 63 Gymnosper m Example Megasporangium cone Microsporangium sTr39obili LIFE a gure 2m EvoluTion of Seed PlanTs In The microspor39angium microspores produce The male gameTophyTe or39 pollen grain wiTh sporapoIenn in walls The mosT resisTanT biological compound known ReproducTion becomes of in some Gymnosperms How do you Think This affecTed The evoluTion and diversificaTion of seed planTs 65 Conifers Pine Cones A cone is a modified stem bearing a tight cluster of scales reduced branches specialized for reproduction Megaspores are produced here Strobilus conelike structure Scales are modified eaves Microspores are produced here Recall that evolution by natural selection Typically involves modification of existing structures 66 Pine Life Cycle Wind carries pollen grains from strobilus to cone Two sperm travel through pollen tube one degenerates after fertilization Note that pollinization does NOT equal fertilization 67 10 Immature Scale Section through scale cons ofcgne I Hi Megaspomcyte Megasporangium no Funciional Dvuie u r WWW Pollsquot charmer FM Slmnlli i W goglgnf 1 Sikooilus s alpn Female Sgsdjsani through Mmsmm 53quot Fu en gamelopiiyle shale w gram 93 V Spamphyle piPLulnizni HAPLOID In Wing Nchsganium seed r psisloping Wing Efgg e embryos 5m e Maiurs cons ygote i lt LIFE 3 Figure 295 i mgmummmw a i K W iquot w i Female gameiophyle EvoluTion of Seed PIanTs AfTer fer TiIizaTion diploid zygoTe divides To produce an embryonic spor ophyTe Gr owTh is Then suspended The embr yo enTer s a dor manT sTage wiTh The end pr oducT being a mulTiceIIuIar seed How mighT suspension of growTh be a fiTness advanTage 69 11 EvoluTion of Seed PlanTs Seeds and Secondary GrowTh are The main reasons for The success of seed planTs cur39r39enTIy The dominanT life forms in Ter39r39esTr39ial envir39onmenTs 72 Origin of Land PIanTs Classi cation of Land Plants GROUP COMMON NAME CHARACTERISTICS NONVASCULAH PLANTS Hepalophyla Liverworts No lamenlous stage gamelophyle llal Anthocerpphyta Hornworls Embedded archegonla sporophyte grows basally from the ground Bryophyta Masses Filamenlous stage sporophyle grows apically from the lip VASCULAR PLANTS Lycophyta Club mosses and allies Microphylle in spirals eporangla in lea axils Pterldophyta Horsetails whisk isms Dillerenlialion between main stem and side ferns branches overlapping growth SEED PLANTS Gymnosperms Cycadophyta Cycads Compound leaves swlmming sperm seeds on modi ed leaves Ginkgophy la Ginkgo Deciduous lanshaped leaves swimming sperm Gneluphyla Gnelophyles Vessels in vascular tissue opposite simple leavs Coniferophyta Conilers Seeds in cones needlellke or scalelike leaves Anglosperms Flowering plants Endosperm carpels gamelopnyles much reduced seeds wiThin lmll Now No cxkincl groups are included in lhis dassi calion 13 Angiosperms A1quot Oldes r angiosperm fossils are Cre i39aceous 140 million years old Radia rion was explosive angiosperms became dominant in only 60 million years Over 250000 species exis i39 Today Female game rophy re even more reduced usually only seven cells 74 Angiosper39m Synapomorphies Xylem wi rh vessel elemen i39s and fibers Phloem wi rh companion cells Triploid endosperm Ovules and seeds 75 14 Double Fertilization amp Endosper39m Micr39ogamefophyfe has Two male gamefes Nucleus of one combines wifh egg The ofher39 nucleus combines wifh Two haploid nuclei of female gamefophyfe To form a frpoia nuceus becomes The endosperm Endosper39m nour39ishes developing spor39ophyfe 76 Carpels Angiosper39m enCIOSed Seedquot fhe ovules and Seeds ar39e enCIOSed in a modified leaf called a carpel Car39pels pr39ovide pr ofecfion and may infer acf wifh pollen To pr39evenf Self pollinafion 77 15 Flowers Mos r angiosper39ms are animalpollina red by insecTs birds and baTs Many flowers enTice pollinaTors wi rh necTar and pollen PlanTs and Their pollinaTors have coevolved some relaTionships are very specific www biomiamiedumuchhalahomeh rml 19 A ng iosper39m Lifecyc le may Zygo i39e develops into an embryo onsls i39s of an embryonic axis will become stem and roof and 1 or 2 cotyledons seed leaves Co i39yledons absorb and digest The endosperm some become pl lo i39osyn rl le ric Ovary and seeds develop in l39o frui rs Fr ui i39 pr39o i39ec rs seed and aids in dispersal eg can become a i39Tacl led 1390 or eaten by animals as Angiosper39m LIfecycle W Sasdle Seed Flower of mature spnmphyla Anmer I Endoapslm W O Microspolocyle Emmy culle Endosperm nucleus 3n Megaspomcyte Zn Megaspmanglum Zygala lznl DIPLOID 2n Double Femllzatinll Microspnles Al HAleDn Pollen gram 0 Pollen grains ml 12a SunWing Pollen lube megaspm W Megagamemphyte 01 Polar nuclsl zl Tube cell nucleus Sperm al E99 LIFE Be nale 29 14 ugmsamwwmmww umqugw w quotmy luv 20 Frui39rs Simpe frui rs develop from one carpel Aggregafe frui rs develop from several carpels Mufpe frui rs form from a clus rer of flowers Accessoryfrui rs develop from par rs o rher Than carpels Accessory 21 Angiosper39m Diversifica39rion Mos r angiosper ms are in Two clades O rher clades include s rar anise and r ela rives wa rer lilies and magnoliids AmbareIa Common ancestor of 7 angiospery Camels mploid endosperm seeds in fruit Water lilies Vessel Shir anlse elements Magnoliids Camels fused by tissue connection Only one Monocols cotyledun Pollen with hlee grooves Eudicols 22 MonocoTs a Trmcum Sp Palms Li lies Grasses C LIIiurn sp LIFE Se Figum 294 a m may ma may A Opuntia Sp B Camus IlaIda EudicoTs C Rosa rugosa LIFE 39 Figum 2919 mmwmrmmmwm 23 PIanTs SupporT Our World PIanTs conTribuTe To ecosysTem services proceSSes by which The environmenT mainTains resources ThaT benefiT humans PIanTs are primary producers phoTosynThesis Traps energy and carbon making Them available To consumers 94 PIanTs SupporT Us Seed planTs are our primary food source Twelve are mosT imporTanT rice coconuT wheaT corn poTaTo sweeT poTaTo cassava Sugarcane Sugar beeT soybean common bean banana Half of The world39s populaTion geTs mosT of iTs food energy from rice 95 24 Plants Support Us Many medicines come from seed plants Medicines are found by screening large numbers of plants or screening large numbers of chemical compounds thnobofam39sfs also discover medicinal plants by studying people and their uses of plants all over the world 96 TABLE Z9l Some Medicinal Plants and Their Products PRODUCT PLANT sounce MEDICAL APPLICATION Atropine Belladonna Dilating pupils for eye examination Bromelain Pineapple stern Controlling tissue inflammation Digitalin Foxglove Strengthening heart muscle contraction Ephedrine Ephedra Easing nasal congestion Menthol Japanese mint Relief of coughing Morphine Opium poppy Relief of pain Qul nine Cinchona bark Treatment of malaria Taxoi Pacific yew Treatment of ovarian and breast cancers Tubocurarine Curare plant As muscle relaxant in surgery Vincristine Periwinkle Treatment of leukemia and lymphoma LIFE 82 Table 291 25
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