Soc 0471- Weeks 1-3 Lecture Notes
Soc 0471- Weeks 1-3 Lecture Notes SOC 0471
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Divya Patel on Wednesday January 20, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to SOC 0471 at University of Pittsburgh taught by Romesberg in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 48 views. For similar materials see Deviance and Social Control in Sociology at University of Pittsburgh.
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Better than the professor's notes. I could actually understand what the heck was going on. Will be back for help in this class.
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Date Created: 01/20/16
Deviance and Social Control SOC 0471 Dan Romesberg TA: Ms. Langman January 6, 2016 The network of deviance Murder rates have gone down, but coverage on local news has increased o Causes people to get scared Leads to people buying guns to protect themselves NIMBY: response to mental institutions o Not in my back yard Want to help, but don’t want it anywhere near there Why are people doing what they’re doing? o ASK THEM! o Guided their behavior, was the meaning they have to the situation o People are not lab rats Have to give stimulus in their environment meaning Philosophical Neighborhoods among sociologists of Deviance Positivist: Takes a causal approach, scientific approach Social Constructionist: Take a non-causal approach Deviance is a label Who gets to do this labeling? Who has the kind of power to label other people as deviant and have that label stick? January 11, 2016 Deviant- anyone who deviates from expected patterns of action o Example: overachievers could in some context be considered deviant Anyone who violates norms of territoriality o Example: how people stand in elevators Experiment – took graduate students and put him in an elevator and covered his face with his hands Other grad student observed people Thio: There are 2 types of deviance o Lower-consensus deviance Not a strong agreement that this really is deviance Example: punk rockers, pot heads, politicians, Wal-Mart o Higher-consensus deviance A strong agreement that this is deviance Murder, robbery - Robert Merton Founding fathers of the sociology of deviance Talked about norms- rules of conduct o Folkways Customs or habits Example: keeping encounters on the street short and sweet o Mores Stronger expectations about appropriate behavior Penalties for violation are more severe Example: sneezing in a salad bar that you are going to eat out of Deviance and Social Control SOC 0471 Dan Romesberg TA: Ms. Langman o Laws Most severe penalties for violation - Howard Becker o No act is inherently deviant th January 13 , 2016 Howard Becker o No act is inherently deviant (??) o The Labeling Theory Example: Joan of Arc French Context o Joan’s actions mean that she is a saint British Concept o Joan’s actions means she is a witch The Marxist perspective o Very critical of “mainstream” deviance research The deviant acts of powerful people, groups, corporations, etc, are usually “of the radar screen” Sociology of knowledge o Basic principles Knowledge is a social product Therefore, we have to ask, what are the social factors that influence the production of knowledge o Perspectives of Knowledge Conventional (Surface- Known Facts) Unknown facts about the real world- these facts are buried/covered Sociology of knowledge: Why are we looking here, as opposed to elsewhere? o Radical S of K: After discovering the facts, how did we decide what they mean? Research tradition o Views about what’s important in the world and how to study these things o A scientists research tradition is an important social factor in the production of knowledge o Two great research traditions Positivism Social Constructionism January 20 , 2016 (finishing chapter 1) Research Tradition o Views about what is important in the world, and how to study these things o A scientist’s research tradition is an important social factor in the production of knowledge o TWO GREAT RESEARCH TRADITIONS Positivism Social Constructionism o Positivist Perspective of Deviance 1. Absolutism: Deviance is real Deviance and Social Control SOC 0471 Dan Romesberg TA: Ms. Langman 2. Objectivism: Deviance is an objective, observable fact 3. Determinism: Deviance is caused by something Something influences our choices Cannot simply choose to do something August Comte: Gave sociology its name (French man) Circa 1850- did his best research and writing A “big time” positivist “Sociology” or “Social Physics”? o Dot multiple dots o Constructionist Perspective of Deviance 1. Relativism: Deviance is a label th Lady singing to herself on 5 ave vs. western psych o Same behavior, diferent labels 2. Subjectivism: Deviance is a subjective experience Impossible to study those who are labeled as deviant in the natural sciences Cant study people the way you study objects in the natural sciences o Important diferences between human beings and lab rats Human beings have to give meaning to their situation and then they act 3. Voluntarism : That deviance really is a voluntary act Something that people choose to do through exercising their “free will” A “non-causal” approach o Say deviance is not caused by something o Stop looking for causes- people may experience things, may be influenced by things and have to give those things meaning o Stimulus organism Response o Deviant behavior Definition by Alex Thio o Thio- Two Kinds of Deviance High Consensus: usually studied by Positivists Low Consensus: Usually studied by Constructionists (Chapter 2) Positivist Theories of Deviance o Anomie- Strain Theory Robert Merton formulated these ideas (1938) Anomie – Means a feeling of powerlessness or normlessness Society may encourage us to be deviant o Psychoanalytic Theory of Deviance Father of Psychoanalysis- Sigmund Freud Everybody is born- with certain selfish desires to pursue pleasures or do whatever they want to do without regard for the wishes of society Selfish desire- called Id o Freud recognized- society is not possible if everyone is doing what they want to do Society teaches us to control our desires Deviance and Social Control SOC 0471 Dan Romesberg TA: Ms. Langman Super-ego o Little voice that says don’t do that Society discourages us to be deviant
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