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Anatomy 292, Week One

by: Shannon Swift

Anatomy 292, Week One EXSC 292

Marketplace > Exercise Biology > EXSC 292 > Anatomy 292 Week One
Shannon Swift

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About this Document

A simple set of the first week of notes!
Marry Winfry-Kovel
Class Notes




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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Shannon Swift on Wednesday January 20, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to EXSC 292 at a university taught by Marry Winfry-Kovel in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 21 views.

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Date Created: 01/20/16
Anatomy 292 Notes January 11, 2016 Chapter 1 What is Anatomy? (Overview)  Anatomy-Study of the structure of the body  Physiology-study of the body function  Sub disciplines o Gross Anatomy (visible) o Microscopic o Surface Anatomy (basic)  Terminology o Derived from greek and latin o Standard nomenclature worldwide o Provides:  Performance assessment, injury diagnosis, exercise prescription and performance research  Structure Levels o Chemical level: atoms-molecules o Cellular: molecules come together o Tissue: white cells come together  Epithelial  Muscle  Connective  Nervous o Organ: multiple tissue types o Organ system: multiple organs working together (most mammals)  Systemic-anatomy by system  Regional-by region o Most education uses a combination of both  11 systems o Skeletal: Protects, supports; muscle attachment; form blood cells, stores minerals (bones, joints, cartilage) o Muscular: locomotion; facial expression, posture; produces heat, energy (within muscles) o Cardiovascular: blood vessels transport blood; oxygen, carbon dioxide; heart pumps blood o Respiratory: supply blood oxygen, removes CO2; lung gas exchange o Nervous: fast acting control, responds to internal and external; nerves, spinal cord and brain o Endocrine: glands secret hormones that regulate; growth, reproduction, nutrient use, works with nervous system o Integumentary: skin; protects; synthesizes vitamin D; cutaneous receptors (pain, pressure, etc.); largest organ o Lymphatic: cleans system; immunity; lymph nodes-white blood cells o Digestive: one big tube; food-absorbable units; removes waste o Reproductive: not necessary o Urinary system-eliminates nitrogenous wastes; removes waste, electrolyte; acid base balance; Blood pressure regulation; kidney- bladder  Scale: length, volume, weight o Metric system  Meter  Micro  Liter  Mill..  Etc. Positional Anatomy in terms o Gross Anatomy – an Introduction  Regional and Directional terms o Anatomical position –a common visual preference point; standing parallel, arms at the side, palms facing front o Regional terms  Axial Region  Axis of body – head, neck and trunk  Appendicular  Appendages – include shoulder and hip o Terms are paired  Superior (cranial) – toward the head or the upper part (up)  Inferior ()- away from the head (down)  Medial – midline of the body; toward the middle of the body  Lateral – away from the middle of the body  Proximal – closer to the trunk; closest to the origin of the body part  Distal – away from the origin of the body part o Both used mainly for appendages  Ipsilateral – same side  Contralateral – opposite sides o Not used often, but remember  Anterior – front of the body; in front of (ventral)  Posterior – back of the body; behind (dorsal)  Superficial – closest to the surface of the body (internal)  Deep – farthest from the surface (internal)  Viewing body planes and sections o Frontal plane – front and back side [cut] o Transverse – in half o Median – down the middle  Body planes o Coronal (frontal) plane  Lies vertically  Anterior and posterior parts  Motions  ABduction - away from midline  ADDuction – bringing back to body/midline o Median (midsagittal)  Sagittal (straight) plane  Vertical Midline; equal right and left halves  Motions  Flexion o The joint gets smaller  Extension  Parasagittal o Transverse  Horizontal  Superior and inferior parts  Motions  Rotations  Most athletes move in all three planes Part 2 – Body Cavities  Dorsal Cavity o Cranial (brain) o Vertebral (spinal) cord  Ventral cavity o Thoracic  Mediastinum, Pleural (lungs), pericardial  Heart and lungs o Abdominal  Digestive visceral  Visceral o Pelvic  Bladder, reproductive organs, rectum  Serous cavities – slit like space lined by serous membranes o 2-ply membranes  Pleura pericardium, peritoneum o Parietal serosa  Outer layer/wall of cavity o Visceral serosa  Covers the visceral organs – touches organs o Serous fluid  Produced by both layers of the serous membranes  Lubricant  Parietal -> serous -> visceral  Pericardium – heart  Peritoneum – digestive organs o Visceral  Balloon analogy 


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