Anatomy 292, Week One
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Shannon Swift on Wednesday January 20, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to EXSC 292 at a university taught by Marry Winfry-Kovel in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 21 views.
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Date Created: 01/20/16
Anatomy 292 Notes January 11, 2016 Chapter 1 What is Anatomy? (Overview) Anatomy-Study of the structure of the body Physiology-study of the body function Sub disciplines o Gross Anatomy (visible) o Microscopic o Surface Anatomy (basic) Terminology o Derived from greek and latin o Standard nomenclature worldwide o Provides: Performance assessment, injury diagnosis, exercise prescription and performance research Structure Levels o Chemical level: atoms-molecules o Cellular: molecules come together o Tissue: white cells come together Epithelial Muscle Connective Nervous o Organ: multiple tissue types o Organ system: multiple organs working together (most mammals) Systemic-anatomy by system Regional-by region o Most education uses a combination of both 11 systems o Skeletal: Protects, supports; muscle attachment; form blood cells, stores minerals (bones, joints, cartilage) o Muscular: locomotion; facial expression, posture; produces heat, energy (within muscles) o Cardiovascular: blood vessels transport blood; oxygen, carbon dioxide; heart pumps blood o Respiratory: supply blood oxygen, removes CO2; lung gas exchange o Nervous: fast acting control, responds to internal and external; nerves, spinal cord and brain o Endocrine: glands secret hormones that regulate; growth, reproduction, nutrient use, works with nervous system o Integumentary: skin; protects; synthesizes vitamin D; cutaneous receptors (pain, pressure, etc.); largest organ o Lymphatic: cleans system; immunity; lymph nodes-white blood cells o Digestive: one big tube; food-absorbable units; removes waste o Reproductive: not necessary o Urinary system-eliminates nitrogenous wastes; removes waste, electrolyte; acid base balance; Blood pressure regulation; kidney- bladder Scale: length, volume, weight o Metric system Meter Micro Liter Mill.. Etc. Positional Anatomy in terms o Gross Anatomy – an Introduction Regional and Directional terms o Anatomical position –a common visual preference point; standing parallel, arms at the side, palms facing front o Regional terms Axial Region Axis of body – head, neck and trunk Appendicular Appendages – include shoulder and hip o Terms are paired Superior (cranial) – toward the head or the upper part (up) Inferior ()- away from the head (down) Medial – midline of the body; toward the middle of the body Lateral – away from the middle of the body Proximal – closer to the trunk; closest to the origin of the body part Distal – away from the origin of the body part o Both used mainly for appendages Ipsilateral – same side Contralateral – opposite sides o Not used often, but remember Anterior – front of the body; in front of (ventral) Posterior – back of the body; behind (dorsal) Superficial – closest to the surface of the body (internal) Deep – farthest from the surface (internal) Viewing body planes and sections o Frontal plane – front and back side [cut] o Transverse – in half o Median – down the middle Body planes o Coronal (frontal) plane Lies vertically Anterior and posterior parts Motions ABduction - away from midline ADDuction – bringing back to body/midline o Median (midsagittal) Sagittal (straight) plane Vertical Midline; equal right and left halves Motions Flexion o The joint gets smaller Extension Parasagittal o Transverse Horizontal Superior and inferior parts Motions Rotations Most athletes move in all three planes Part 2 – Body Cavities Dorsal Cavity o Cranial (brain) o Vertebral (spinal) cord Ventral cavity o Thoracic Mediastinum, Pleural (lungs), pericardial Heart and lungs o Abdominal Digestive visceral Visceral o Pelvic Bladder, reproductive organs, rectum Serous cavities – slit like space lined by serous membranes o 2-ply membranes Pleura pericardium, peritoneum o Parietal serosa Outer layer/wall of cavity o Visceral serosa Covers the visceral organs – touches organs o Serous fluid Produced by both layers of the serous membranes Lubricant Parietal -> serous -> visceral Pericardium – heart Peritoneum – digestive organs o Visceral Balloon analogy
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