Chapter 2 Notes (1-19-16)
Chapter 2 Notes (1-19-16) PSYCH 3240
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Lucy Stevens on Wednesday January 20, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYCH 3240 at Clemson University taught by Dr. Claudio Cantalupo in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 35 views. For similar materials see PSYCH 3240 in Psychlogy at Clemson University.
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Can you just teach this course please? lol :)
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Date Created: 01/20/16
Chapter 2 Structure and Function of the Nervous System (1-19-16) Microscopic Level Neurons: -Specialized cells that receive information and send it to other cells -Carry information within in the brain and throughout the rest of the body. -about 100 million neurons in the brain Glial Cells: -cells that provide structural and functional support for neurons Neuron Basic Structure Nucleus: control center Dendrite: receive signals Soma: surrounds the nucleus Axon: transmits signals Myelin Sheath: cover axons and is made of a special kind of glial cells Types of Neurons 1. Motor Neurons (output neurons): a. Receive information from the other neurons b. Carries information to muscle or gland cells 2. Sensory Neurons (input neurons): a. Receives a particular type of sensory information b. Carries information to other neurons 3. Interneuron a. Connects one neuron to another in a particular part of the central nervous system (CNS) *Can you connect motor and sensory neurons? What would the outcome be? -Yes! Reflexes work in this way. -Lots of animal behaviors work by the connection of sensory to motor neurons. *Adaptive Trait: any trait that carries for the individual and sends the trait to the next generation. It has nothing to do with good or bad behavior. *Is the wiring that you were born with adaptive? You can get adaptive behavior by attaching motor and sensory neurons. *What is the problem? You cannot change the hard wiring. Experiences and the environment will have no effect on the wiring. The environment is not constant. The middle “black box” allows you to change the output based on changes in the environment. Glial Cells 1. Oligodendrocytes: build myelin around axons in the brain and spinal chord (CNS) ( The membranes of most cells are made of fat) 2. Schwann Cells: build myelin around axons in the peripheral nervous system (PNS) Neural Membrane -critical for the neurons ability to carry information -consists of a phospholipid bilayer where protein molecules are sometimes embedded. -Head: Hydrophilic (attracted to water) -Tail: Hydrophobic (repelled by water) -Proteins are made of a sequence of amino acids Protein Molecules 1. Channels: molecules move down a gradient 2. Pumps: molecules are pushed against the gradient Polarization: difference in electrical charge (voltage) between the inside and outside of the cell. Potential: difference between inside and outside of the neuron *There is a small difference in potential between the inside and the outside of a neuron at resting point. -70 mV is the difference Resting Potential: difference in electrical charge between the inside and outside of the membrane of a neuron at rest *There is an unequal distribution of ions on the two sides of the membrane. *Ions are molecules or atoms with positive or negative charges (lost or acquired electrons) Organic anions (A-) Chloride Anions (Cl-) Sodium Cations (Na+) Potassium Cations (K+) *At resting potential: -more potassium inside the neuron -more sodium outside the neuron
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