PSYC 2010- Chapter 1 Notes
PSYC 2010- Chapter 1 Notes Psyc 2010-003
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Morgan Dimery on Wednesday January 20, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psyc 2010-003 at Clemson University taught by Edwin G. Brainerd in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 178 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychology in Psychlogy at Clemson University.
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Date Created: 01/20/16
Chapter One The Evolution of Psychology Psychology is the science that studies behavior and the physiological and cognitive processes that underlie behavior, and it is the profession that applies the accumulated knowledge of this science to practical problems. Wilhelm Wundt was a German professor who changed the view of psychology being a “combination” of philosophy and physiology. He mounted a campaign that made psychology an independent field. He established the first formal lab for research in psychology at the University of Leipzig. He also published the first journal on psychology. Philosophy and physiology are parents of psychology. Philosophy is a field that is constantly exploring questions about the mind, and physiology deals with how the human brain (mind) works. 1. Empirical- this is the belief that knowledge should come from observation. Its beliefs are not based on reasoning, speculation, traditional beliefs, or common sense. Ideas are tested by research. This is why psychologists ask a lot of questions and like to have a lot of data and documentation. 2. Repeatable- experiments can be done an infinite number of times. Ideas can be tested as many times as a psychologist pleases. 3. Combines observations into theories- theories are ideas related to one another that can explain observations. Psychologists do not just want to collect facts; they want to understand why. Theories link observations together that would seem completely unrelated to each other. The fact that psychology is so diverse (there is always more than one way to look at something) is actually not a negative thing. 4. Has scientific goals- psychology has the same goals that all other branches of science have. The goals are, measuring & describing, explaining & predicting, and applying & controlling the results. 5. Uses scientific methods- the scientific method is: state the hypothesis, design a method, collect data, analysis the results, and report the findings. • Structuralism- this idea came from Edward Titchener, who trained at Wundt’s lab. It was based on the idea that the goal of psychology is to analyze consciousness into basic elements, and then try to understand how the elements are related to one another. Some of these basic elements include sensations, feelings, and images. This theory explores many questions usually dealing with sensation and perception. A lot of work regarding this theory is usually done in a lab. • Functionalism- this idea was influenced by William James. This idea states that psychology should look more at the function of consciousness rather than the structure. This idea really seeks to understand the continuous flow of thoughts. They like to go out and see how people handle things in real world situations. Mental testing and behavioral differences in men and women are examples of this idea. • Behaviorism- this is the idea that scientific psychology should only study behavior that can be observed. John B. Watson founded this idea. This means to ignore the study of consciousness. It was a huge change in direction. Watson stated that scientific claims can be verified by anyone who is able to find the right observations, and this cannot be done if it is solely dealing with the mind (like consciousness). Ivan Pavlov and B. F. Skinner also played a part in this idea. • Psychoanalytic theory- this is the theory of Sigmund Freud. It stated that the unconscious contains thoughts that cannot be known at the conscious level, but they still influence behavior. This theory works to explain personality, motives, and mental disorders by focusing on unconscious thoughts or memories. Two important supporters of this idea were Carl Jung and Alfred Adler. • Humanistic- this theory greatly emphasizes how humans have unique qualities, as well as their freedom and personal growth. Humans are different from animals because animals lack a sense of self. Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow had a big impact on this theory. • Cognitive- this theory is interested in thoughts and mental processes. It states that human behavior cannot be fully understood unless it examines these mental processes. Jean Piaget, Noam Chomsky, and Herbert Simon had big impacts on this idea. • Biological- James Olds, Roger Sperry, David Hubel, and Torsten Wiesel made big impacts on this theory. It involves the genetic bases of behavior in organisms. It states that the organism’s function can be understood by the structures of the brain and biochemical processes. • Evolutionary- this theory focuses on the evolutionary bases of behavior. It states that behavior patterns evolve in order to adapt to changing environments. David Buss, Martin Daly, Margo Wilson, Leda Cosmides, and John Tooby all made an impact on this theory. Natural selection selects for organism’s whose behavior leads to the most reproductive success. • Positive psychology- Martin Seligman got the idea for this because his daughter told him that he was grumpy all of the time. He insisted that there was too much focus on all of the negative aspects of life, and not enough focus on all of the enjoyable things. Theory and research are used to better understand the fulfilling parts of life. The three different branches are positive subjective experiences (emotions), positive individual traits (strengths and virtues), and positive institutions and communities (different groups of people). The four main professional specialties in psychology are clinical, counseling, school, and industrial/organizational. Clinical psychology is the most widely practiced branch of psychology. Clinical psychologists evaluate, diagnose, and treat patients who have psychological disorders. They also deal with problems that are less severe, such as emotional problems. They conduct a lot of interviews and do talk therapy. Counseling psychologists are similar to clinical psychologists because they both deal with patients who have problems and they conduct similar tests. Counseling psychologists deal more with everyday problems rather than severe behavioral issues. These include marriage, family, or career counselors. School psychologists are there to promote the development of kids in school. They usually work in elementary or middle schools. They are there for kids who need help in school or any other issue they might have such as social or family matters. Industrial/organizational psychologists perform many different tasks in business and industry. They could run human resource departments, work on improving attitudes of staff or help them to enjoy their job more. Area Focus of Research Social Interpersonal behavior, how social forces play a part in behavior Developmental Human development; adolescence, adulthood, and old age Experimental This is not the only area that does experiments. Focuses on sensation, perception, learning, conditioning, motivation and emotion Educational The way that people learn and the best way to teach them. Involves many aspects of the educational process Health How psychological factors influence physical health, treatment of illnesses Physiological Influence of genetic factors on behavior, the role of different body systems on behavior Cognitive “Higher” mental processes such as memory and reasoning Personality Understanding someone’s consistency with behavior, factors that shape personality Psychometrics Measurement of behavior and capacities, intelligence tests are included here Some applied areas of psychology include: clinical, clinical neuropsychology, counseling, education/school, industrial/organizational, and forensic. A clinical psychologist and a psychiatrist are similar to each other, but they are not the same!!! • Both are involved in analyzing and treating psychological disorders • Training and education requirements are different o Clinical psychologists go to a graduate school and get a doctoral degree o Psychiatrists go to medical school and get their M.D. o Both have to complete an internship at an accredited medical university (clinical psychologist) or mental health institute (psychiatrist) • Treatment for each is different o Clinical psychologists cannot prescribe medications. They use a lot of talk therapy o Psychiatrists usually prescribe medication as a form or treatment 1. Psychology is Empirical • Knowledge should be gained by observation 2. Psychology is Theoretically Diverse • Theories help shape observation and the fact that there is more than one explanation for everything is a positive thing 3. Psychology Evolves in a Sociohistorical Context • Different trends and values in society shape psychology, and vice versa 4. Behavior is Determined by Multiple Cases • There is not just one factor that causes something to happen; such as many factors contribute to doing well in a course 5. Behavior is Shaped by Cultural Heritage • The things that we have been taught to value and believe influence our behavior 6. Heredity and Environment Jointly Influence Behavior • Nature vs. Nurture: it was once thought that only one or the other was the sole factor to how someone behaved, but now it is thought that they both work together to influence behavior 7. People’s Experience of the World is Subjective • Different people choose to focus more on certain things, and ignore other things- people sometimes see what they WANT to see Improving Academic Performance • Regardless of how confusing or hard-to-follow your professor’s are to follow, you should still attend class. • Cramming the night before an exam is NOT an effective way to study. • It is not necessary to attempt to write down every single thing that your professor says during the lecture. • Contrary to what you have been told, your first choice on a multiple-choice exam is not always the right choice. • College performance is not solely based on intelligence; it is always influenced by study habits and attitudes. Most students underestimate their study abilities. • A study program should include: 1. Set up a schedule for studying- write it down!!! 2. Find a place to study where you can concentrate- try to avoid multitasking!!! 3. Reward your studying- goals don’t have to be just long-term!!! • Preview the text to be learned, don’t ignore study aids found in textbooks, and be smart when highlighting “important” points. • Students who go to class are associated with higher grades. • Be an active listener, read ahead in the text, write things in your own words, pay attention to hints about what is important, and ask questions to make the most out of going to class. Critical Thinking Application • Many educated people believe that critical thinking is the most important outcome of education. • Critical thinkers understand scientific investigation, apply the rules of logic to their life, think about probabilities, think about whether they can trust the information they are receiving, and analyze arguments. • Critical thinking has two components- cognitive & emotional/affective component • Critical thinkers are not lazy, and they are willing to be flexible. • Critical thinking skills do not always develop naturally, so they need to be taught. • Asking questions and wanting more information is a quality found in critical thinkers.
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