History 112, Week 1 notes
History 112, Week 1 notes History 112
Popular in American History Since 1865
Popular in History
This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Taylor Kitchen on Wednesday January 20, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to History 112 at University of South Carolina taught by Foxworth in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 49 views. For similar materials see American History Since 1865 in History at University of South Carolina.
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Date Created: 01/20/16
History 112 Reconstruction 1/14/16 How did Reconstruction reflect more national order yet more chaos than the years of civil war? Goals o Transitioning former enslaved individuals to freedom and self-sufficiency o Re-establishing fed and local government that are loyal to the Union to prevent future conflict Civil war lasted 1861-1864, ended in 1865 after Union army captured confederate capital in Richmond, VA Deciphering emancipation o Emancipation Proclamation – 1/1/1863. Did not free every slave; only applied to confederate states that weren’t already under Union control?? Lincoln never promised equality for slaves, just freedom. th o 13 Amendment – 1865. This formalized the Emancipation Proclamation. o Re-est family connections. Lots of black weddings, new black churches formed. o Freedmen’s Bureau – 1865-69 – passed by Congress, and only supposed to last 1 year. Help former slaves establish labor contracts. Provide food and clothing and help settle them on abandoned land. Indirectly helps promote education (establish black schools like James’ Plantation) o Sharecropping (split land into several different plots) as fieldwork for wages, problem of crop lien system (make a lien against your crops). Allows the fields to be tended while former slaves have jobs. Leads to indebtedness because there is a fall in cotton prices and have to give a percentage of crop to country store for labor tools. More autonomy than slave system, but continued forced dependence on landlord. Crop Lien: credit extended to laborers by country merchants for food/clothing/supplies; get paid back with interest. o Overall difficulty finding profitable employment Re-incorporating the South o Pres. Abe Lincoln’s (Republican) battle with Congress: Proclamation of Amnesty and Reconstruction (the 10% Plan) – offered a full pardon for those who were willing to renounce succession and accept emancipation. When 10% of people agree, the state can rejoin the Union. Issue with 90% of confederate people back into the Union. Congress’ Wade-Davis bill (1864) – proposed by radical Republicans. guaranteed legal equality of all freedmen. All ex-confederates aren’t able to draft a new constitution. Need more here o Lincoln as a moderate Republican angered both the Right and the Left o He was assassinated 4/14/1865 o Pres. Andrew Johnson supported Lincoln’s plan of Amnesty Disdain for wealthy planters evident in terms Most lenient plan proposed for Reconstruction and left states room to limit freedoms of AAs Almost impeached. Congress hated him. o Radical reps – did not approve of Lincoln;s plan; strongly disapproved of Johnson;s plan o Civil Rights Act of 1866 – to nullify black codes o 14 Amendment – 1868. Stated that persons born in the US are citizens (saying that if you are a slave and you were born in US, you are a citizen). Guarantees due process and equal protection under the law. o Radical Reconstruction and Johnson veto power ?? o 15 Amendment – 1869. Allows black men to vote o to rejoin union, states must adhere to new amendments. est military districts in the South. o Readmission to the Union takes a very long time o Election of 1876 Southern states participate Hayes (R) and Tilden (D) run for Pres. Compromise of 1877 ends Reconstruction Northern provisions o Accept Rutherford Hayes as Pres o Agree to protect civil and political rights of black voters Southern o Removial of fed troops from southern states o Appointment of a southerner to the Pres’ cabinet o Federal aid for another transcontinental railroad in the South North gets number 1 and South gets number 1 and 2. Post-Civil War America – the human landscape of the South & the West 13 (1865), 14 (1868), 15 (1870) Amendments define the rights of citizens regardless of former status in servitude Native Americans, Elk v Wilkins (1884): born on a reservation, no access to US citizenship, present or future Chinese Exclusion Act (1882): barred immigration for 10 years for skilled and unskilled laborers until 1943 o Chinese immigrants mostly settle in the West. In 1870 more than 60,000 laborers in America. o Some thought these laborers were a threat to American laborers o Not repealed until 1943. US wants to be allies with China during WWII. Mexican Americans: theoretical access to citizenship but not practices until mid-twentieth century o Treaty of Guadeloupe (1848): rights promised o In Re Ricardo Rodriguez (1897): affirmed that the 13 -15 th th Amendments apply to Mexican Americans Freedmen’s Bureau aids transition from slavery to freedom (1865-1869) o Gives funds to help with education process Federal funds for educating Native American Children on reservations “Americanizing” children: European traditional gender norms, no native belongings, Anglicized names, boys have to cut long hair, etc. “Kill the Indian in him, and save the man” – Captain Richard Pratt, founder of Carlisle Training School (1892). Violence in the South o Reconstruction governments have African American legislators for the 1 time o Ku Klux Klan founded in Tennessee (1866) – preservation of old order in the South; restoration of “Solid South” Founded by 6 people Wanted Democratic white government Targeted Republicans, Northerners (carpetbaggers) Wore hoods and robes Nathan Bedford Forest: first Grand Wizard of KKK o Carpetbagger – northerners come to the South to get an inexpensive plantation o Riots to threaten back and Republican votes all over the South: Colfax Massacre (1873) Redeemers: Turning back the Clock o “Home Rule” restored in southern states after Reconstruction through the Redeemers; achieved through voter intimidation o 1895 SC Constitution to “undo” changes from Reconstruction Black Codes were passed – laws that limit black freedom People from Beaufort didn’t support o United Daughters of the Confederacy and the “Lost Cause” doctrine Violence in the West o Sand Creek Massacre 1864 – Union army and Cheyenne (Black Kettle’s white flag) Many women and children killed o George Custer, Battle of Little Bighorn, “Custer’s Last Stand” (1876-1881) o Cheyenne and Lakota Sioux reduced to “wardship status” – no longer autonomous o Massacre at Wounded Knee 1890 – fear of native rituals and Sitting Bull’s death 200 killed Changes to land & labor o Failure of southern land redistribution in Radical Reconstruction; sharecropping as compromise o Homestead Act of 1862: 160 free acres for 5 year settlement for any citizen Encouraged settlement Transcontinental Railroad helped transportation Need a cowboy to keep cattle from running away. Many Mexican Americans are cowboys. More land than ever is developed in the West Aided by invention of barbed wire to fence in livestock o “Exodusters” try to escape southern Redeemer governments for political freedom in the West o not the “promised land” after all o Mexican Americans working as ranchers on own land - Dawes Allotment Act of 1887 proposed when reservation land became desirable - Forced Native Americans to abandon hunting; buffalo extinction due to white sporting - Allotment Act provided 160 acres per person; surplus sold to white settlers - Reduces native holding from 138 million acres to 48 million - Rationale: Personal property would make natives “less savage” and more willing to embrace agricultural livelihood The Human Landscape o West is in the midst of a new economic transformation after the Civil War o New types of employment and business interests o Largely disposed of Native Americans o Ripe for infrastructure, on the cusp of new types of businesses o Violence, struggle, exploitation remains vital theme into the Gilded Age
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