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Kinesiology lectures 1-4

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by: Brady Hoyt

Kinesiology lectures 1-4 EXSS 22000

Marketplace > Ithaca College > Kinesiology > EXSS 22000 > Kinesiology lectures 1 4
Brady Hoyt
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About this Document

These notes cover the first 4 lecture of Kinesiology, Important initial information and basic kinesiology knowledge needed for the class.
Jennifer McKeon
Class Notes
Kinesiology, movement, axis, planes, bones, osteoclast, osteoblast, compression, tension, torsion, yield point




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"You can bet I'll be grabbing Brady studyguide for finals. Couldn't have made it this week without your help!"
Johanna Bailey

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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Brady Hoyt on Wednesday January 20, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to EXSS 22000 at Ithaca College taught by Jennifer McKeon in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 17 views. For similar materials see Kinesiology in Kinesiology at Ithaca College.


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Date Created: 01/20/16
1/29/2016      Axis of Rotation:Simple.    ● AoR does not change  ● Things rotate around AoR  Anatomical Planes:    ● Three Cardinal Planes:  1.) Frontal (coronal)    2.) Sagittal  3.) Transverse (Hz)  Angular Human Motion:  ● The JOINT represents the Axis of Rotation  ● The moving segment represents the Lever  Arm    Anatomical Planes and Axes of Rotation       Terms that describe limb motions: Motions occur “in” planes and “about” the AoR    AoR Runs perpendicular to the planes  ● Anterior­posterior axis­Frontal Plane  ● Medial­Lateral axis­Sagittal Plane  ● Longitudinal axis­Transverse Plane    Sagittal Plane Motions:  ● Mainly Flexion & Extension  ● hyperextension, dorsi flexion, plantar flexion  ● Used for the absorption and propulsion   ● Most range of motion**  Frontal Plane Motions:  ● Mostly Adduction & Abduction  ● 2nd most range of motion**  Transverse Plane Motions:  ● Mainly rotation  ● 3rd best range of motion    Axis of Rotation: Complex (Joint Motion)      2/1/16    Lecture 3:Bones  ● Among the hardest structures (only teeth are harder)  ● Very biodynamic and metabolically active (always growing and changing)  ● Highly vascular (neuro­vascular)  ● Adapts to mechanical demands  Types of Bones  ● Long bones (make length, good with compression, forces go towards the midline)  ● short bones (carpals, used to hold things)  ● flat bones (disperses forces, protective)  ● irregular bones (irregular for more places for attachments for muscles)  ● sesamoid bones (formed based on tension from tendons, example: patella)   Bone Composition (outside cell)  ● Mineral portion → Makes bone hard, but brittle  1.) calcium and phosphate  2.) 60%­70%  3.) Solid consistency  ●  Extracellular matrix (Stuff outside the cell)  ● Protein Collagen → Gives bone strength and allows “bend”  1.) Tough and pliable  ● Ground substance → holds everything together  ● Water → supports everything  Bone Composition (inside the cell) →  Provides support and are the “living” components of  bones  ● Bone cells  1.) Osteocytes    2.) Osteoblasts (lay new bone material down, build bone)    3.) Osteoclasts  ( breaks down bone)  Boine structure (macroscopic) ­  Structural  ● Compact/Cortical  ­ Hard Outer shell  ­ composed of osteons  ● Cancellous/Trabecular/Spongy  ○ Inner portion of bone  ○ Contains trabeculae  ○ contains red bone marrow  ● Periosteum­ dense fibrous membrane surrounding bones, provides attachments for  muscles  ● Endosteum­lines the central cavity in long bones, contains yellow fatty marrow, contains  osteoblasts and osteoclasts  Load/Deformation or Stress/Strain curve  ● Stress/Load (FORCE)  ○ Load or force per unit of area that develops within a structure in response to  externally applied loads (N/cm^2)   ● Strain/Deformation (CHANGE IN SHAPE)  ○ Deformation (change in dimension) that develops within a structure in response to  externally applied loads    2/3/2016    Biomechanical Properties of Bone  ● Bone is a ​ Biphasic ​composite material  ○ mineral  ○ collagen and ground substance  ● Strength and stiffness  ● behavior under loading  ● Biphasic​ = Viscoelsticity (Bone exhibits both Viscous and Elastic properties)   ● Yield Point: when the physical properties of bone (and other material) start to break down  Loading: Rate of Dependency  ● Biomechanical behavior varies with rate of application of load becasue bone is  viscoelastic  ● Can sustain a higher load to failure when loads are applied at higher rates   ● Tissue will behave stiffer when loaded QUICKLY   Loading: Putting a force on something  ● Linear                                                                            Rotational              ­Axial/Longitudinal                                                       ­Eccentric                      ­Compression and Tension                                            ­”off” center loading             ­Perpendicular                                                                        ­a movement arm is created                        ­ Shear                                                                             and torque is generated    Schematic of a Long Bone  ● Compression: few fractures are due to compression, often combined with shear  ● Tension: Distraction=tension force  ○ Pulling apart of bone  ○ Causes debonding of cement lines and pulling out of osteons  ○ Tend to cause transverse fractures  ● Shear: perpendicular to longitudinal axis  ○ load is applied parallel to the surface of the structure  ○ Tends to cause transverse fracture   ○ Bones do the worst against shear  Compression>Tension>Shear      2/5/2016     Torsion  ● Loads cause twisting about longitudinal axis  ● Combination of compression and tension  ○ fracture line forms a 45 degree angle to the axis perpendicular to the torsional  loading  ● Causes spiral fracture  ● Basically, OB and OC should be working in a dynamic balance to maintain optimal bone  strength and lightweight­ness  ● Bone is laid down where needed and reabsorbed where not needed  ● If OB outpaces OC, too much bone is laid down  ● OC out paces OB too much bone is reabsorbed (broken down)   


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