HY 101 Western Civ
HY 101 Western Civ HY 101
Popular in Western Civ To 1648
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by JS24 on Wednesday January 20, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HY 101 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Thomas Jennings in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 80 views. For similar materials see Western Civ To 1648 in History at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
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Eugh...this class is soo hard! I'm so glad that you'll be posting notes for this class
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Date Created: 01/20/16
▯ Egyptian Civilization ▯ 1)Archaic Period ▯ 2)*Old Kingdom ▯ 3)First Intermediate Period ▯ 4)*Middle Kingdom ▯ 5)Second Intermediate Period ▯ 6)*New Kingdom ▯ 7)Third Intermediate Period ▯ 8)The Late Period ▯ 9)The Macedonian Kings (i.e. Alexander the Great) ▯ 10)The Ptolemaic Dynasty ▯ * = major period ▯ ▯ Mesopotamia region ▯ 1) Sumerians 2) Old Babylon 3) Assyrians 4) New Babylon ▯ Mesopotamia developed writing about 100 years before the Egyptians developed hieroglyphics ▯ ▯ Sumerian ▯ Area was livable because of irrigation ▯ The trace amount of salt in the water going through irrigation over and over again built up enough to kill all the crops and made it a difficult region to live in ▯ Old Babylon (200-1750 BC) – Hammurabi Up until now there had been some attempts at a legal system but nothing definitive No set punishments for certain crimes Hammurabi developed the worlds first written law code – Code of Hammurabi (Eight foot basalt monolith) o Most punishments would be execution of torture o Did not treat everyone equally o Slaves (lowest class) were not protected by the law. Slaves consisted of people on the wrong side of a war (not based on race etc) o Most of the time slavery was temporary, merciful option Punishments for Lords (highest class) tended to be fines Common people (not slave or lord) – most punishments would be death o Murder, theft, rape, arson = death “Eye for an eye, tooth for a tooth” – Quoted by many religions o Law designed to minimize crime in cities “Let the buyer beware” – instruction to citizens of Babylon to use common sense when buying things. o It is the buyers responsibility to make sure they are not getting ripped off, not the governments Statue of Limitations is 1 month o If someone stole 500 from you, and it was not recovered in one month the government would reimburse you (if you could prove it) o Insurance fraud was one of the most serious crimes – horrific torture for days ▯ Development of Mathematics in Babylon Used base 12 system – grouped things into twelve’s Used base 12 because of time o Today we still use base 12 for time and measurements ▯ Lunar Calendar – necessary for farming Lunar calendar not perfect but worked for farming – off by about eleven days ▯ Invention of Wheel – period of horses and oxen domesticated Old Babylon had wheel a few hundred years before Egypt ▯ Epic of Gilgamesh (going to be on first written journal exercise) Real king, story is very unreliable and exaggerated Became obsessed with secret of immortality ▯ ▯ Shift focus to EGYPT ▯ Egypt divided into upper and lower Egypt (lower Egypt is farther north, called lower because it is flat) ▯ Egyptians much more optimistic – Nile river makes for very easy farming ▯ Egypt is a very secure place – Thousands of miles of desert around it and at this time there were no boats that could get to Egypt ▯ First period of Egyptian civilization ▯ Archaic Period (3100 – 2770 BC) – before unified and before hieroglyphics not much known because it was before written language The Scorpion King – first leader of unified Egypt (only three inscriptions of the scorpion king have been found) Narmer / Menes – Unified Upper and Lower Egypt (probably a period of around a few hundred years between Narmer/Menes and The Scorpion King) ▯ Old Kingdom (2700-2200 BC)- Period of first Pharaohs / Dynasties Only way to go to afterlife was to be mummified Osiris (lord of earth) – Isis (Osiris sister/wife) o Set (god of underworld) – Osiris brother – jealous of Osiris so finds and kills him and tears his body apart and throws them in the Nile o Iris finds all his body parts and repairs them into human form called Horus o Pharaoh considered to be god on earth (Horus) Djozer – First great king Mastaba – trapezoidal building where kings buried in Archaic and early old kingdom o Djozer did not think a Mastaba was a good enough place for a king to be buried o Djozer buried in a step pyramid – built by brick o Old Kingdom is only period where pyramids were built in Egypt Pyramids of Giza – much more massive than any other pyramids o Largest of the pyramids is 47 stories tall and around 4000 years old o Pyramids almost completely looted when discovered o Pyramids were failures – suppose to protect Pharaohs body Extremely hard to build (around 25 years to build) Life expectancy of only 45 Bankrupted Egypt Did not protect the body of the Pharaoh Every single one looted within one hundred years Secret passages were not secret ▯ First Intermediate Period (2200-2050 BC) ▯ ▯ Middle Kingdom – (2050 – 1786 BC) Anubis – gate keeper of the afterlife o Takes your heart out of your body and weights it against a feather – if the feather is heavier you go to the afterlife o Your heart gets heavier with every bad thing you do o If your heart was heavier than the feather – your earthly body would come back to life and you would be thrown to the crocodile god and be devoured alive – repeat process for hundreds of years until you cease to exist (which was the number one fear) o Afterlife meant everything to Egyptians Written law is now in Egypt People content during Middle Kingdom – no warfare for around four hundred years Ahmunhemet I – moved capital of Egypt farther north – from Thebes to Memphis Now aware of trade, boat travel, Mesopotamians ▯ ▯ Second Intermediate Period (1786 – 1560 BC) Hyksos – group who invaded Egyptians for the first time in history o Not much known about Hyksos o Somewhere is Western Asia o Hyksos had horse chariots o Egyptians completely caught of guard Ahmose – leader for Egypt – had soldiers go into cities and steal horses so they could develop their own chariots o Took about twenty five years for them to domesticate horses and develop army o Ahmose restored Egypt to their power Ahmose I – first Pharaoh of New Kingdom ▯ New Kingdom (1560 - 1087 BC) Ahmose didn’t want to waste good army – started going on the offensive Conquer and took over Nubia in the south Took over Israel Corruption Some corrupt Priest were helping people cheat their way into the afterlife Valley of the Kings – found a mountain that looked like a pyramid – dug a cave deep into the mountain where the tomb would be – then caused an avalanche to burry it Almost all of New Kingdom mummies survived Ahmenhotep IV – decided to abandon worship of all gods except one – sun god o Changes his name to Akhenaton o Changes Egypt from polytheistic to monotheistic o Changed 2000 years of religion and started tearing down temples and rebuilding ones – made people very angry and caused a rebellion o Did not mummify Akhenaton and left his body out to rot King Tut – 11 years old o dies at 18 o least important Pharaoh during the time o forced him to marry his own sister at 11 – forced at sword point o Very important today - Only tomb today found 100% intact
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