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The Scientific Approach/ Classifying Matter

by: Zahrea Small

The Scientific Approach/ Classifying Matter CH 101

Marketplace > University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa > CH 101 > The Scientific Approach Classifying Matter
Zahrea Small
GPA 3.5
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About this Document

These notes include everything that was gone over in class. Most questions that the professor posts are included so you can test yourself, as well as answers.
General Chemistry
Paul Rupar
Class Notes




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This 41 page Class Notes was uploaded by Zahrea Small on Wednesday January 20, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CH 101 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Paul Rupar in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 34 views.


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Date Created: 01/20/16
Chapter 1: The Scientific Approach to Knowledge Learning Objectives • Define what constitutes a good scientific scientific lawientific theory, and Pages 7-9 in ro The Scientific Approach to Knowledge • Scientists try to understand the universe through empirical knowledge gained through observation and experiment 2 Gathering Empirical Knowledge ─ Observation • Some observations are descriptions of the characteristics or behavior of  nature ─ qualitative : Ex­ Describing something by element name  (Carbon or Hydrogen) • Some observations compare a characteristic to a standard  numerical scale ─ quantitative :Ex- 240 mL 3 From Observation to Understanding • Hypothesis – a tentative interpretation or  explanation for an observation Commonly remembered as “If…Then” statement • A good hypothesis is one that can be tested to be proved wrong! Must be possibly false 4 Testing Ideas 5 • Ideas in science are tested with experiments 6 • An experiment is a set of highly controlled procedures designed to test whether an idea about nature is valid 7 • The experiment generates observations that will either validate or invalidate the idea 8 Is this a good hypothesis? F rom Specific to General Understanding Yesterday, the phase of the • moon was a crescent. I • A hypothesis is a potential explanation for a single or small number of observationsd that it rained a lot • A scientific theory is a general explanation for why way they doature are the way they are and behave the Scientific theories are also known as “The pinnacle of scientific knowledge” *Invalid theories can still be useful* • I hypothesiteat crescent moons cause rain showers 9 Think about it • Given what you just learned about the term “Theory”, what’s wrong with this statement: “The theory of gravity is just a theory and therefore probably wrong” 10 From Specific to General Observations • A scientific law is a statement that summarizes  all past observations and predicts future  observations Law of Conservation of Mass –“In a chemical  reaction matter is neither created nor destroyed.” 11 A scientific law allows you to predict future observations 12 Scientific Method Tentative explanation of a single or small number of observations Pdesigned to test an idea General explanation of natural phenomena Careful noting and recording of natural Generally observed phenomena occurence in nature 13 Relationships Between Pieces of the Scientific Method 14 Chapter 1: Classifying Matter Learning Objectives • Define key characteristics of a solids, liquids and gases • Know how to classify matter into elements, compounds, heterogeneous mixtures and homogeneous mixtures Pages 4-7 in ro Classification of Matter • Matter is anything that occupies space and has mass • Matter comes in three different states: •Solid, liquid, and gas 3 4 Solids - Atoms/molecules are tightly packed – doesn’t flow 5 6 Liquids- flow – does not compress – doesn’t expand – tightly packed 7 8 Gases- lots of space between atoms – compressible – atoms moving 9 10 Classifying Matter by Physical State • Matter can be classified as solid, liquid, or gas based on the characteristics it exhibits 11 Solid – Shape is rigid – volume maintained, not compressible and doesn’t flow Liquid – Assume shape contains another shape, maintains shape, is compressible, does not flow Gas – assume it contains shape, is compressible, doesn’t flow 12 Classifying Matter by Composition • Another way to classify matter is to examine its composition • ype of particle • Arrangement of particles • Interaction of particles with each other • 13 Classification of Matter by Composition • Matter whose composition does not change from one sample to another is called a pure substance • Made of a single type of atom or molecule • Always have the same characteristics 14 • Matter whose composition may vary from one sample to another is called a mixture • Two or more types of atoms/molecules in variable proportions 15 Classification of Matter by Composition 16 Classification of Pure Substances & Elements • Pure substances that cannot be decomposed into simpler substances by chemical reactions are called elements • Basic building blocks of all matter • Composed of s single type of atom – atoms may or may not be combined into a molecule 17 Classification of Pure Substances 18 19 Classification of Pure Substances  Compounds •Pure substances that can be decomposed are  called compounds Chemical Combinations of elements  All molecules of a  compound are identical  and have the same properties 20 Classification of Mixtures • Homogeneous mixtures are mixtures that have uniform composition throughout • Every piece of a given sample has identical composition/characteristics • Heterogeneous mixtures are mixtures that do not have uniform composition throughout • Regions within a sample have different compositions/characteristics • ypes: Solid/Solid Liquid/Liquid Solid/Liquid Classification of Mixtures 16 17 Composition of Matter Mixtures examples • Chicken noodle soup • Neon Gas • Carbon Dioxide 19 What about this stuff? • v=3zoTKXXNQIU


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