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Week 1 notes

by: Alli Petit

Week 1 notes GEOL 21080-002

Alli Petit
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Nicholas Bonini (P)

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About this Document

These are notes I took from watching the lecture/powerpoint
Nicholas Bonini (P)
Class Notes
oceans, Geology





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This 0 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alli Petit on Wednesday January 20, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to GEOL 21080-002 at Kent State University taught by Nicholas Bonini (P) in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 113 views. For similar materials see ALL ABOUT THE OCEANS in Geology at Kent State University.


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Date Created: 01/20/16
Week 1 Course Intro and History of Oceanography 01202016 What is Science 0 An intellectual activity systematic study and world view based on observations experimentation and interpretation Seeks to uncover 39natural laws that describe how the universe works 0 Natural Laws are expressed in the physical world as reproducible phenomena What is Scienti c Inquiry 0 Traditionally 0 Make observations 0 Formulate Hypotheses 0 Conduct experiments 0 Con rm or refute hypothesis 0 In practice it rarely happens as a linear progression of steps the process can start at any step What is Oceanography Scienti c study of the ocean its life forms amp boarding lands Branches 0 Marine Geology Study of Earth s composition and structure marine sediments and history of earth s climate Why is it important Understanding earthquakes mapping the sea oor and understanding the history of climate change 0 Chemical Oceanography Study of Ocean s dissolved a solids and gases relationships between these and other elements of the ocean environment Why is it important Chemistry effects ocean circulation and marine life and climate is affected by the chemical cycling in the ocean 0 Physical Oceanography Study of waves and currents ocean atmosphere and sea ice interactions Why is it important Physics affect all aspects of oceanography and understanding ocean circulation is essential for deciphering the mysteries of climate change 0 Biological Oceanography Study of nature and distribution of marine life and relationships between living and nonliving components of the ocean Why is it important Insight to our own biology oceans are sources of food commodities and pharmaceuticals and the ecological heath of the oceans is tied to the land 0 Ocean Engineering Designing devices for the marine environment oil platforms ships and harbors Study of how the marine environment affects materials Why is it important Marine technology is essential to the economy and good design and engineering is crucial to the survival of man made objects in the marine environment 0 Marine Resource Management Energy oil and natural gas Materials sand and gravel Food and Commodities Transportation and recreation Why is it important Stewardship of marine resources is important to society and to the future of the ocean Oceans and the Future Concerns Climate change sea level rise reduced polar ice changes in weather sustainable shing pollution and habitat destruction Dealing with these issues requires scienti c and political solutions The Ocean and Ancient Mediterranean cultures Egyptians Phoenicians and Greeks among others plied the Mediterranean for trade war and exploration Eratosthenes Alexandria Egypt c276195 BC geometric estimate the Earth s circumference 39690 km was only off by 1 from the modern accepted value of 40030 km Unfortunately Ptolemy s cAD 85161 incorrect estimate of 29000 km was more widely known by the Middle Ages and Renaissance The Austronesians and Polynesians Seafarers of Asian descent colonized the islands of the western Paci c Taiwan 100006000 BC Luzon 50002500 BC MicronesiaMelanesia 1200 BC to 500 AD Polynesia 1000 BC to early 19th century AD Polynesian navigation Master navigators Polynesians were able to colonize all habitable islands in the Western and Southern Paci c Employed a mix of celestial navigation to determine direction along with ability to read ocean swell cloud formation and various signs of potential landfall Chinese Exploration 0 14051433 Seven epic voyages by Chinese Admiral Zheng He 0 Over 300 ships including as many as 62 huge quotTreasure shipsquot 130 m long x 52 m wide 10x the size of contemporary European vessels 0 Reasons for voyages may have included trade diplomacy or military Viking voyages of the Middle Ages 0 871 AD Colonization of Iceland 0 982 AD Greenland by Eric the Red Thorvalssson 9856 AD Bjarni Jerjolfsson blown off course and likely sighted Newfoundland o 1002 Eric the red reached North America Portuguese and Spanish Exploration 0 Portugal spurred by Henry the Navigator led the way in the early phases of European exploration Spain was not long to follow First European circumnavigation o Magellan then Francis Drake circumnavigated the world ocean in the 15005 Navigation during the European Age of Exploration 0 Desire the riches of the Far East led the major sea faring nations of Europe Portugal Spain England and France to exploration and conquest Navigation was accomplished using charts a marine compass to determine direction and celestial navigation using a sextant to determine latitude o Longitude is a function of time 0 Earth makes 1 complete rotation every 24 hours 0 360 degrees 24 hrs 15 degreeshr Solving the Longitude Problem Invention of a quotChronometerquot by John Harrison Begun in 1728 and perfected in 1760 0 Harrison designed a timekeeper that worked with springs not a pendulum The voyages of Captain Cook 0 Captain Cook conducted three voyages around the globe in the late 17005 0 He collected detailed records and data and develop methods that led to systematic surveys of oceanographic properties American Innovation 0 1769 FranklinFolger temperature based map of the Gulf Stream improved sailing time between N America and Europe 0 1802 Nathaniel Bowditch published the New American Practical Navigator a text on celestial navigation 1847 Lt Matthew F Maury produced the rst wind and current charts of the North Atlantic Challenger Expedition While quaint by modern standards the Challenger Expedition carried the most advanced scienti c equipment and some of the best minds of its time It marked the beginnings of organized oceanographic research Hypothesis testing on the Challenger Expedition The systematic collections conducted by the Challenger expedition provided suf cient date to begin to systematically test scienti c hypothesis Challenger data refuted the ideas that the deep ocean was devoid of life or that it was coated by a quotprimordial oozequot which was shown to be a byproduct Fridtjof Nansen and the Fram The Arctic was the last great frontier of oceanographic research due to its harsh conditions Nansen set out to study ocean currents and to reach the north pole by freezing a purposebuilt wooden research vessel the Fram into theice Marked by the transition of oceanography from purely description to quantitative data The age of modern oceanography Modern oceanographic research began in earnest following the end of the Second World War Modern methods such as radar and sonar and surplus equipment including vessels and explosives for underwater seismic surveys enabled mapping of the sea oor Ocean Drilling Programs Research on an international scale has enabled collection of deep marine samples from every ocean basin during thee phases of exploration Deep Sea Drilling Program DSDP Ocean Drilling Program ODP Integrated Ocean Drilling Program IODP New Proposed program International Ocean Drilling Program IODP Floater Arrays and Remote Sensing The ocean is too vast and varies over too many timescales to be fully explored by human vessels alone The future of ocean exploration is moored arrays autonomous and remote instrumentation These methods 0 Satellite remote sensing o Mooring arrays o Drifting oat arrays o Motivated vehicles


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