Week 1 Jour 312
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jordan Hanna on Wednesday January 20, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Jour 312 at California Polytechnic State University San Luis Obispo taught by Danny H. Eller in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 95 views. For similar materials see Public Relations in Journalism and Mass Communications at California Polytechnic State University San Luis Obispo.
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Date Created: 01/20/16
Week 1 – January 4 & 6h th Defining Public Relations – January 4th Public Relations o Is… Everywhere you look Occurs when it appears as if nothing has happened Fosters mutually beneficial relationships Can help give organizations their identity o Is not… A synonym for propaganda, spin, publicity, or hype Artificial or superficial Well understood by many, including some PR practitioners Think about the “why” not the “how” o The strategy not the tactics Rex Harlow noted that there were approximately 472 definitions of “public relations” o Harlow’s definition: PR helps establish and maintain mutual lines of communication, understanding, acceptance, and cooperation between an organization and its publics o Public Relations definition: The management of relationships between an organization and the publics that affect its success PR is a combination of: Week 1 – January 4 & 6 th o Publicity Media attention o Branding Corporate/product identities/personal branding An emotional response to the image or name of a particular company, product, or person o Communication To reach out to the publics Internal (60%) and external Personal Branding: o Process by which individuals and entrepreneurs differentiate themselves and stand out from a crowd by identifying and articulating their unique value proposition, whether professional or personal, then leverage it across platforms with a consistent message and image to achieve a specific goal Advertising vs. Public Relations o Advertising: controlled, instructing the ads and images the way they want to hopefully people will buy the product 5 types of Public Relations Campaigns: o Political campaign: Candidate or issue oriented o Commercial campaign: Promote a company’s new product or service o Reputation campaign “image campaign”: Aimed at improving how a company or nonprofit organization is perceived by its publics o Educational or Public Awareness campaign: Conducted by nonprofit organization or advocacy group Week 1 – January 4 & 6h th o Social Action campaign: Advocate a social issue or cause th The Publics in Public Relations – January 6 Public: o Any group of people who share common interests or values in a particular situation Stakeholder: o When a public has a relationship with your organization 5 Essential Elements of Public Relations o PR is a management function: Counsel timing, manner, or form relationship-building actions Counsel-management Is important to tell the people what to do Leadership role If you’re not in a management role then get out because you don’t know the ins and outs of the executive issues, you’ll get yourself into trouble o PR involves two-way communication: Between the organizations need and public’s concerns Relationship building o PR is a planned activity: PR practitioners are becoming strategic counselors who are less preoccupied with publicity in the mass media than their predecessors Week 1 – January 4 & 6 th Example: friend raising and building relationships o PR is socially responsible: PR today is global rather than confined to the borders of only one company o PR is a research-based social science: Becoming a profession with a scholarly body of knowledge Hunt-Grunig Models of Public Relations o PR involves a two-way communication st o 1 Model: The Two-Way Symmetrical Model Two-way communication, negotiate with publics, resolve conflict, and promote mutual understanding and respect between the organization and its public(s) Normative Understanding a public’s opinion and attitudes and then using PR communications to accomplish mutually beneficial outcomes nd o 2 Model: The Two-Way Asymmetrical Model Influence publics toward a particular point of view Understanding a publics opinion and attitudes and then designing PR efforts to deliver information the public will rd likely accept o 3 Model: The Public Information Model Dissemination of objective and accurate information Using PR to disseminate information to various publics th o 4 Model: The Press Agentry/Publicity Model Most practiced model Uses press releases and other one-way communication techniques to distribute organizational information Using PR to generate publicity for the organization Week 1 – January 4 & 6 th o Summary Public relations practitioners may choose to implement on of the four models in specific situations and another model in a different situation o Examples Emergency situation: A PR practitioner may adopt a public information model to disseminate information about areas to avoid or evacuation routes Response to specific public input: A PR practitioner may implement a two-way symmetrical model to work with the publics to achieve mutually beneficial outcomes regarding noise, traffic, or public safety concerns Contingency Theory of Accommodation o PR lies within a continuum from pure accommodation to pure advocacy, dependent on one or a combination of variables including: Threats to organization Issues facing organization Dominant organizational culture o Challenges Two-Way Symmetrical Model as normative Reflective Paradigm (reflection) o Most important role in PR practice is to obtain and sustain the societal legitimization of organizations o Focuses on simultaneous interactions with stakeholders and recognizes that organizations can achieve only as much as society permits Integrated Marketing Communications (IMC): o Advertising: Bringing a product of service to the attention of potential and current customers o Marketing: A wide rang of activities involved in meeting the needs of your customers, by analyzing the competition, positioning your product or service Week 1 – January 4 & 6h th o Public relations: Establishing and maintaining ongoing relationship with your publics Example: media relations Public Relations Practitioners o PR Agencies o Corporations o Government (public affairs) o Nonprofit organizations and trade associations o Independent PR consultants The Public Relations Process o Traditional Four-Step Model (linear): Research Planning Communication Evaluation Problems: Oversimplifies Doesn’t incorporate values Implies one step automatically follows another in an orderly fashion, which is not realistic In reality, each of the four steps can appear anywhere within the PR process o Dynamic Model (non-linear): Critical-thinking process Constant analysis and reevaluation Week 1 – January 4 & 6h th o Values Driven Model: Identifying where an organization wishes to go Identifying the principles that will be observed in getting there Why values are important o Organizations have fallen out of favor because they failed to live up to their stated values o Organizations have earned praise for adhering to their values o Whose values should you follow? Your own values The values of the client The values of targeted public(s) The values of society
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