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Week Two Notes

by: Aspyn Adams

Week Two Notes PSY 101

Aspyn Adams

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About this Document

* = Will be on Midterm
Introduction into Psychology
Class Notes
Psychology, PSY 101, Psy101, Short
25 ?




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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Aspyn Adams on Wednesday January 20, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 101 at Arizona State University taught by Short in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 20 views. For similar materials see Introduction into Psychology in Psychlogy at Arizona State University.


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Date Created: 01/20/16
How Psychologists Practice Science:  Descriptive Methods o Involve attempts to measure or record behaviors, thoughts or feelings in their natural state.  Experimental Methods o Involve attempts to manipulate social processes by varying some aspect of the situation.  Ethical Issues Descriptive Methods: Psychologists (and other fields) use five major types of descriptive methods. 1. Naturalistic Observations- Involves observing behavior as it unfolds in its natural setting. a. Advantages i. Behaviors are spontaneous. ii. Doesn’t rely on people’s ability to report on their own experience. b. Disadvantages i. Researcher may interfere with ongoing behavior. ii. Some interesting behaviors are very rare. iii. Observer bias- Researcher may selectively attend to certain events, and ignore others. iv. Time consuming. 2. Case Studies- Involve intensive examination of a single person or group. a. Advantages i. Rich source of hypotheses. ii. Allows studies of rare behaviors. b. Disadvantages i. Observer bias. ii. Difficult to generalize findings from a single case. iii. Impossible to reconstruct causes from complexity of past events. 3. Archives- Researchers can also examine archives, or public records of social behaviors. a. Advantages i. Easy access to large amounts of pre-recorded data. b. Disadvantages i. Many interesting social behaviors are never recorded. 4. Surveys- The survey method involves asking people questions about their beliefs and behaviors a. Advantages i. Allows study of difficult-to-observe behaviors, thoughts and feelings. b. Disadvantages i. People who respond may not be representative. ii. Subjects may be biased or untruthful in responses. 5. Psychology Tests- Involve attempts to assess an individual’s abilities, cognition, motivation, or behaviors. a. Advantages i. Allows a measurement of characteristics that are not always easily observable b. Disadvantages i. Tests may be unreliable (Yielding inconsistent scores) * will be on test ii. Tests may be reliable, but not valid (not measuring the actual characteristics they are designed to measure.) The descriptive methods are useful in determining correlation.  Correlation- The extent to which two or more variables are associated with one another  Correlation coefficient- a mathematical expression of the relationship between two variables. Variable A can cause B, just as much as B can cause A, but C could also be a Variable. A → B A ← B A ← ↓ → B C In order to determine causality, we must turn to experimental methods. Hypothetical Deductive Method of Reasoning: Epistemology Theory (Ex. Diffusion of Responsibility) → Deductive Reasoning → Falsify Hypothesis ↓ ↓ Inductive Reasoning Data ↓ Situation (EX.Case Study Murder) Experiment= Manipulation Laboratory experiments: Directly affect Independent, and Dependent Variables.  The Independent Variable is the variable manipulated by the experimenter. *  The Dependent Variable is the variable measure by experimenter. * o Advantages  Allow cause-effect conclusions  Absolute control o Disadvantages  Artificial situations may not represent relevant events as they naturally unfold. (May no be realistic) Field Experiments: Manipulation with unknowing participant’s variables and their settings.


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