A&P 2 Week 1 Notes
A&P 2 Week 1 Notes BIOL 2510 - 001
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ashley Barranco on Wednesday January 20, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 2510 - 001 at Auburn University taught by Dr. Shobnom Ferdous in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 130 views. For similar materials see Human Anatomy & Physiology II in Anatomy at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 01/20/16
Chapter 17 Blood **Highlighted portions are definitions Blood: the life sustaining transport vehicle of the cardiovascular system Characteristics of Blood Type of connective tissue Travels through the body within blood vessels Maintains homeostasis ( the balance of functions in our body) Makes up 8% of our body weight ( About 5 Liters) Functions of Blood 3 functions: transport, regulation, and protection Transport Transports substances such as O2, CO2, and hormones, throughout the body Regulation: regulates the body’s Ph levels by using buffers and it maintains the body’s temperature Protection: Contains cells of immune system (White Blood Cells). Blood also contains cell clotting factors to help prevent excessive blood loss Composition of Blood Blood is the only fluid tissue in the body Blood is a type of Connective tissue composed of matrix (plasma) and formed elements Matrix: Plasma is 55% of the total blood volume. It is the nonliving portion of blood, and it is 90% water. IT also contains solutes such as nutrients, gases, and hormones Formed elements: living blood cells and platelets. Contains buffy at (leukocytes), and erythrocytes, The erythrocytes contain hematocrit which is the percentage of total blood volume made of erythrocytes. Cells are suspended in plasma Erythrocytes (red blood cells), Leukocytes (White blood cells), and Platelets are all formed elements The higher the hematocrit the thicker your blood is. Red Blood Cells (erythrocytes) Function: To transport O2 to tissue from lungs and CO2 released by tissues back to lungs. Shape: biconcave disc which means the edges are thicker than middle Composition: Enucleate, lacks cellular organelles Main cellular components: protein called hemoglobin Lifespan: 220 days or less than 3 months Hemoglobin Consists of heme and globin Heme: iron containing red pigment Globin: protein made of 4 polypeptide chains - 2 alpha subunits and 2 beta subunits - Each subunit has a bound hemegroup containing an iron atom - O2 binds to iron portion of heme - 1 billion O2 molecules per red blood cell Hematopoiesis production of formed elements ( RBC, WBC, platelets) Starts with hematopoietic stem cell In newborns this takes place in the spleen, lymph nodes, and red bone marrow In adults this takes place in red bone marrow primarily in proximal epiphysis of humerus and femur Erythropoiesis formation of red blood cells Erythroprotein hormone produced by kidneys ( some produced in liver too) to stimulate erythropoiesis Erythropoiesis makes blood thicker so clotting, stroke and heart failure become more likely. White Blood Cells Never let monkeys eat bananas: This is the mnemonic to remember the different types of WBC. This order goes from most abundant to least abundant. Never: Neutrophils Let: Lymphocytes Monkeys: Monocytes Eat: Eosinophils Bananas: Basophils These types can be separated into 2 further categories: Granulocytes and Agranulocytes Granulocytes: contain membranebound granules in cytoplasm, spherical, multi lobed nuclei The 3 WBC types that are granulocytes are neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils Neutrophils: most common, phagocytize bacteria and fungi Eosinophils: nucleus bilobed, digests parasitic worms, role in allergy and asthma Basophils: least common, nucleus, granules contain histamine (causes inflammation, vasodilation Agranulocytes: lack visible granules, nuclei, typically spherical or kidney shaped The 2 types of WBC types that are agranulocyes are lymphocytes and Monocytes Lymphocytes: mostly in lymphoid tissue: important in cellular immunity B lymphocytes (B cells): when stimulated by bacteria or toxins differentiate into plasma cells that produce antibodies specific for the bacteria or toxin T lymphocytes (T cells): directly attack virusinfected cell or tumor cell Monocytes: kidney shaped nucleus, enters tissue and differentiate into macrophages phagocytes Blood Types Red blood cells have antigens (any substance recognized as foreign by immune system) Antigens cause agglutination if transfused into someone with different RBC type ABO blood types have different antigens Rh blood types have different antigens ABO blood types are based on the presence or absence of type A and type B antigens Antibodies in plasma act on antigens not present on person’s own RBCs Type A: A antigens, antiB antibodies Type B: B antigens, antiA antibodies Type AB: A and B antigens, no antibodies Type O: no antigens, antiA and antiB antibodies Antibodies: proteins of immune system that bind to antigens Universal Donor: Type O Universal Recipient: Type AB Agglutinogens: specific name for RBC antigens because they cause agglutination 2 types of Rh blood types: Rh+, and Rh Rh+ have D antigen and Rh has no D antigen People with Rh blood type will react with Rh+ blood Persons ABO & Rh blood types reported together: AB+, AB, O, O+, etc. Erythroblastosis fetalis condition in newborns where Rh mothers immune system attacks Rh+ baby’s RBCs. To prevent this from happening you can get an injection during pregnancy, serum with antiRh antibodies. If baby’s blood cells get into mom’s blood stream, it will bind to Rh antigen and prevent mom’s. Disorders Anemia: blood has low capacity to carry O2. Conditions include low RBC count, low hemoglobin levels due to insufficient iron B12 vitamin in diet, and abnormal hemoglobin Hemorrhagic anemiablood loss Low iron anemia (either dietary or ability to uptake) microcytes Pernicious anemia inability to absorb B12. Developing erythrocytes can’t divide. Renal anemia kidneys don’t produce adequate EPO Aplastic anemia dysfunction of red bone marrow Polycythemia excess of erythrocytes increase blood viscosity. Conditions include cone marrow cancer, high altitude, and blood doping. Can causes strokes or heart attacks. Leukemia cancer involving white blood cells. Conditions include leukocytes proliferate uncontrollably, anemia, bone pain, weight loss. It can be fatal if not treated with radiation/chemotherapy/stem cell transplant Platelets Platelets are cell fragments to stop hemorrhage Production stimulated by thromboprotein Vascular spasmssmooth muscle contracts Platelet plus formation platelets are sticky to exposed collagen of vessel. Releases chemicals amplifying sticky signal. More platelets join. Coagulation mesh is formed that traps formed elements producing a clot. Pro coagulants ( clotting factors) : named IXIII Intrinsic and extrinsic pathways Anticoagulants delicate balance; usually dominate Hemostasis disorders Hemophilia lack of necessary clotting factors A: most common. Factor VIII B: factor IX deficiency C: factor XI deficiency, least common and least severe Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) spontaneous coagulation throughout body inability to clot when necessary excessive internal bleeding pregnancy complications, septicemia, extreme deviations from homeostasis Sickle Cell Anemia Abnormal hemoglobin Alteration in amino acid chain Bchains of hemoglobin link, disfigure RBC shape Common in descendants from malaria belt of Africa Two copies of gene for sickle cell= very severe disease One copy of gene for sickle cell= less severe diseases. Slight malaria resistance
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