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A&P 2 Week 1 Notes

by: Ashley Barranco

A&P 2 Week 1 Notes BIOL 2510 - 001

Ashley Barranco
GPA 3.66
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About this Document

These notes cover Chapter 17 on Blood
Human Anatomy & Physiology II
Dr. Shobnom Ferdous
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ashley Barranco on Wednesday January 20, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 2510 - 001 at Auburn University taught by Dr. Shobnom Ferdous in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 130 views. For similar materials see Human Anatomy & Physiology II in Anatomy at Auburn University.

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Date Created: 01/20/16
Chapter 17 Blood  **Highlighted portions are definitions  Blood: the life sustaining transport vehicle of the cardiovascular system  Characteristics of Blood  Type of connective tissue   Travels through the body within blood vessels   Maintains homeostasis ( the balance of functions in our body)   Makes up 8% of our body weight ( About 5 Liters)   Functions of Blood   3 functions: transport, regulation, and protection   Transport­ Transports substances such as O2, CO2, and hormones, throughout the body  Regulation: regulates the body’s Ph levels by using buffers and it maintains the body’s  temperature    Protection: Contains cells of immune system (White Blood Cells). Blood also contains cell  clotting factors to help prevent excessive blood loss  Composition of Blood   Blood is the only fluid tissue in the body   Blood is a type of Connective tissue composed of matrix (plasma) and formed elements   Matrix: Plasma is 55% of the total blood volume. It is the nonliving portion of blood, and it is  90% water. IT also contains solutes such as nutrients, gases, and hormones   Formed elements: living blood cells and platelets. Contains buffy at (leukocytes),  and  erythrocytes,  The erythrocytes contain hematocrit which is the percentage of total blood volume made of  erythrocytes.   Cells are suspended in plasma  Erythrocytes (red blood cells), Leukocytes (White blood cells), and Platelets are all formed  elements   The higher the hematocrit the thicker your blood is.   Red Blood Cells (erythrocytes)     Function: To transport O2 to tissue from lungs and CO2 released by tissues back to lungs.   Shape: biconcave disc which means the edges are thicker than middle   Composition: Enucleate, lacks cellular organelles  Main cellular components: protein called hemoglobin   Lifespan: 220 days or less than 3 months  Hemoglobin   Consists of heme and globin   Heme: iron containing red pigment   Globin: protein made of 4 polypeptide chains  - 2 alpha subunits and 2 beta subunits - Each subunit has a bound heme­group containing an iron atom  - O2 binds to iron portion of heme  - 1 billion O2 molecules per red blood cell   Hematopoiesis­ production of formed elements ( RBC, WBC, platelets)   Starts with hematopoietic stem cell  ­In newborns this takes place in the spleen, lymph nodes, and red bone marrow  ­In adults this takes place in red bone marrow primarily in proximal epiphysis of  humerus and femur   Erythropoiesis­ formation of red blood cells   Erythroprotein­ hormone produced by kidneys ( some produced in liver too) to  stimulate erythropoiesis   Erythropoiesis makes blood thicker so clotting, stroke and heart failure become more  likely.  White Blood Cells   Never let monkeys eat bananas: This is the mnemonic to remember the different  types of WBC. This order goes from most abundant to least abundant.    Never: Neutrophils   Let: Lymphocytes   Monkeys: Monocytes   Eat: Eosinophils   Bananas: Basophils    These types can be separated into 2 further categories: Granulocytes and  Agranulocytes  Granulocytes: contain membrane­bound granules in cytoplasm, spherical, multi­ lobed nuclei   The 3 WBC types that are granulocytes are neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils  Neutrophils: most common, phagocytize bacteria and fungi   Eosinophils: nucleus bi­lobed, digests parasitic worms, role in allergy and asthma   Basophils: least common, nucleus, granules contain histamine (causes inflammation,  vasodilation  Agranulocytes: lack visible granules, nuclei, typically spherical or kidney shaped   The 2 types of WBC types that are agranulocyes are lymphocytes and Monocytes   Lymphocytes: mostly in lymphoid tissue: important in cellular immunity  ­B lymphocytes (B cells): when stimulated by bacteria or toxins differentiate into  plasma cells that produce antibodies specific for the bacteria or toxin ­T lymphocytes (T cells): directly attack virus­infected cell or tumor cell  Monocytes: kidney shaped nucleus, enters tissue and differentiate into macrophages­ phagocytes  Blood Types   Red blood cells have antigens (any substance recognized as foreign by immune  system)   Antigens cause agglutination if transfused into someone with different RBC type   ABO blood types have different antigens  Rh blood types have different antigens   ABO blood types are based on the presence or absence of type A and type B antigens  Antibodies in plasma act on antigens not present on person’s own RBCs   Type A: A antigens, anti­B antibodies   Type B: B antigens, anti­A antibodies   Type AB: A and B antigens, no antibodies   Type O: no antigens, anti­A and anti­B antibodies    Antibodies: proteins of immune system that bind to antigens   Universal Donor: Type O   Universal Recipient: Type AB   Agglutinogens: specific name for RBC antigens because they cause agglutination    2 types of Rh blood types: Rh+, and Rh­  ­Rh+ have D antigen and Rh­ has no D antigen  ­People with Rh­ blood type will react with Rh+ blood   Persons ABO & Rh blood types reported together: AB+, AB­, O­, O+, etc.   Erythroblastosis fetalis­ condition in newborns where Rh­ mothers immune system  attacks Rh+ baby’s RBCs. To prevent this from happening you can get an injection  during pregnancy, serum with anti­Rh antibodies.  If baby’s blood cells get into  mom’s blood stream, it will bind to Rh antigen and prevent mom’s.  Disorders    Anemia: blood has low capacity to carry O2. Conditions include low RBC count,  low hemoglobin levels due to insufficient iron B­12 vitamin in diet, and abnormal  hemoglobin  ­Hemorrhagic anemia­blood loss  ­Low iron anemia (either dietary or ability to uptake)­ microcytes ­Pernicious anemia­ inability to absorb B­12. Developing erythrocytes can’t divide.  ­Renal anemia­ kidneys don’t produce adequate EPO  ­Aplastic anemia­ dysfunction of red bone marrow   Polycythemia­ excess of erythrocytes increase blood viscosity. Conditions include  cone marrow cancer, high altitude, and blood doping. Can causes strokes or heart  attacks.  Leukemia­ cancer involving white blood cells. Conditions include leukocytes  proliferate uncontrollably, anemia, bone pain, weight loss. It can be fatal if not  treated with radiation/chemotherapy/stem cell transplant  Platelets   Platelets are cell fragments to stop hemorrhage   Production stimulated by thromboprotein   Vascular spasms­smooth muscle contracts   Platelet plus formation­ platelets are sticky to exposed collagen of vessel. Releases  chemicals amplifying sticky signal. More platelets join.   Coagulation­ mesh is formed that traps formed elements producing a clot.   Pro coagulants ( clotting factors) : named I­XIII   Intrinsic and extrinsic pathways   Anti­coagulants­ delicate balance; usually dominate  Hemostasis disorders    Hemophilia­ lack of necessary clotting factors  ­A: most common. Factor VIII  ­B: factor IX deficiency  ­C: factor XI deficiency, least common and least severe     Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC)  ­spontaneous coagulation throughout body  ­inability to clot when necessary­ excessive internal bleeding  ­pregnancy complications, septicemia, extreme deviations from homeostasis  Sickle Cell Anemia    Abnormal hemoglobin   Alteration in amino acid chain   B­chains of hemoglobin link, disfigure RBC shape   Common in descendants from malaria belt of Africa   Two copies of gene for sickle cell= very severe disease   One copy of gene for sickle cell= less severe diseases. Slight malaria resistance  


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