Bio Beginning weeks of what he covers in lecture
Bio Beginning weeks of what he covers in lecture BIOL 1020
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kayla Waters on Wednesday January 20, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 1020 at Auburn University taught by James Zanzot in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 29 views. For similar materials see Principles of Biology in Biology at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 01/20/16
-what it means to be alive: cells, reproduction, calories, maintain homeostasis, evolutionary adaption, regulation, growth/development -biology: study of living things -science: study the natural world -scientific method: 1. observe 2. hypothesis *colorful ant-things with jelly beans(colored sugar water)* Biosphere —> Ecosystem —> Communities —> Populations —> Organisms Organisms = organ systems > organs > tissues > organelles > cells Structure / Function -correlated at all levels ex) orchid pretending to be sick with spots so bug visits -we can see this at macroscopic levels(what we can observe) or at finer, microscopic levels -cell is basic unit of structure and function *plant cells are square -Evolution counts for unity and diversity of life —evolution is accepted as fact in bio ex) orchid family super diverse -life continuing depends on heritage Classifying Domain > Kingdom > Phylum > Class > Order > Family > Genus > Species Domain : Eukarya Kingdom : Animalia Phylum : Chordata Class: Mammalia Order: Carnivora Family: Ursidae Genus: Ursus Species: Ursus Americanus -3 Domains total : Bacteria, Archaea, Eukarya ***argument about viruses being alive or not alive*** short answer is no they aren't alive Chapter 2 Key Concepts: -matter consists of chemical elements in pure form and in com nations called compounds -an elements properties depend on structure of atoms -formation and function of molecules depend on chemical bonding between atoms -chemical reactions make and break chemical bonds Matter - takes up space , has mass, solid liquid gas *103 ways to exist as matter..periodic table *plus those other random ones after 103 that science people have created element - substance which cannot be broken down by chemical means *oxygen, iron *we define elements by how many protons they have *to find how many neutrons: atomic mass at bottom of square… avg mass of all the isotopes known for the element isotopes : neutrons varying *valence electrons : electrons in outer electron shell. periodic table gets shape bc valence electrons —electrons are actually pretty far away from nucleus in atoms *coloring periodic table —“the lighter the element is, the more essential it is for life” Hydrogen most abundant *noble gas column has full electron shells… they have all 8 *orbital shapes get weird. look at table en.wikipedia.org/wiki/atomic_orbital compound - substance of two or more elements in fixed ratio *table salt=sodium chloride -learn element symbols on periodic table emergent properties - combine two things, and then that thing has properties you didn't expect *salt is example. sodium is soft metal, chlorine is green gas in elemental state. Bonds polar covalent, ionic Water Key Concepts -Polar Covalent bonds in water molecules result in hydrogen bonding -four emergent properties of water contribute to earths suitability for life -acidic and basic conditions affect living organisms polar covalent bonds —> hydrogen bonding 4 emergent properties of water -cohesion of water molecules -moderation of temperature by water -ice floats (weird) -water is the solution (at least the solvent) -water isn't a good solvent for oils and fats (hydrophobic) -great solvent for everything else because of what compounds do in water.. ions come apart sodium chloride with water example : water people’s arms go toward chloride and backs go to sodium bc back is negative Concentration and Molarity -Amounts of reagents are important -molecular weight = sum of atomic weights -sucrose : C12 H 22 O11 -MW= 12*C + 22*H + 11*O = 342 Da / molecule -Avogadro’s Number —> 6.02 x 10^23 —> 1 mole -converts daltons to grams -342 grams of sucrose is 6.02 x 10^23 molecules EXAMPLE We want to make 5 L of a 0.2 M glucose solution We need to know how many g of glucose glucose: C6H12O6 Step 1: calculate molecular weight Step 2: dimensional analysis Step 3: multiply and cancel terms Molecular Weight: 6*C = 6*12.011 = 72.06 12*H = 12*1.0079 = 12.08 6*O = 6*15.999 = 95.994 = 180.12 Da/molecule OR 180.12 g/mol Dimensional Analysis: 180.12 g/mol * 0.2 mole/L * 5 L/1 = 180.12 g How many moles of water are in 1 L? given 1 mL = 1g 1 L = 1 kg 1L = 1000 mL = 1000g * 1mol/18.02 g = 55.49 mol Acids and Bases -Water is not all H2O -Can dissociate into ions -H2O —> H+ + OH- -1 molecule in 554 million typically -in pure water @ 25C, [H+] = 10^-7 M -Also, [OH-] = 10^-7 M -Ions are more reactive than H2O pH = -log[H+] = 7 -acids donate H+ in aquaeous solutions pH = -log[H+] [H+] can vary from 10^0 - 10^14 M [OH-] varies reciprocally 10^-14 - 10^0 M -10^0 = 1M -pH + pOH = 14 -pH 3 + pOH = 11 8.26.15 pH - negative log of concentration of hydrogen ions -vinegar acidic, ammonia basic (adding more hydroxide ions) in experiment -oxygen is electronegative —pulls electrons towards it -water is highly reactive substance.. why is that beneficial for life? it bonds and makes stuff -pH scale measures protons -pH scale is logarithmic *if you go from 7 to 8 on pH scale, protons decrease by 10. 7 to 9, protons decrease by 100 bc 10^10 (logarithmic) -buffer - keeps pH from changing dramatically *ex. bicarbonate in our blood *buffers only function in a range of pH *buffers normally don't function in really high or really low pH -ions have full valence shells, so that makes them more stable, but not less reactive because not neutral. unless it is neutral, then its like a noble gas Ch 4 — Carbon -same formula, but we can rearrange in different ways -3 types of isomers *structural isomers *cis-trans (cis is on the same side…alliteration) (trans means across) (cis and trans are 2 different things) *enantiomers — mirror images of each other (the example with purple, red, blue & purple, blue, red) -Asymmetric carbon- bonded to four different atoms or molecules Functional groups (7) recognize, 1. hydroxyl 2. amino 3. carboxyl 4. sulfhydryl 5. phosphate 6. methyl 7. carbonyl 5.4 - proteins include a diversity of structures, resulting in a wide range of functions • proteins account for more than 50% of the dry mass of most cells • protein functions include structural support, storage, transport, cellular communications, movement, and defense against foreign substances Storage proteins function: store amino acids ex) casein, protein of milk Hormonal proteins function: coordination of ex) Contractile and motor proteins function: movement ex) Defensive Proteins function: protection against disease ex) Transport Proteins function: transport of substances ex) Structural Proteins function: support ex) keratin in hair, horns, feathers, collagen and elastin Polypeptides -unbranched polymers built from the same set of 20 amino acids -a protein is a biologically functional molecule that consists of one or more polypeptides Amino Acids -20 different ones -linked by peptide bonds -polypeptide is polymer of amino acids -each polypeptide has a unique linear sequence of amino acids, with a carboxyl end (C- terminus) and an amino end (N-terminus) Protein Structure • functional protein consists of one or more polypeptides precisely twisted, folded, and coiled into a unique shape • Levels 1. primary structure is unique sequence of aa *order of letters in a long word *based on genetic 2. secondary consists of coils and folds in the polypeptide chain *result from hydrogen bonds between repeating constituents of the polypeptide backbone 3. tertiary is determined by interactions among various side chains (r groups) *interactions include hydrogen bonds, ionic bonds, hydrophobic, van der waals 4. quaternary results when a protein consists of multiple polypeptide chains *collagen is a fibrous protein consisting of 3 polypeptides coiled like a rope *hemoglobin is a globular protein consisting of 4 pp: 2 alpha 2 beta Sickle-Cell results from a single amino acid substitution in the protein hemoglobin Determines protein structure… -physical and chemical conditions -alterations in pH, salt concentration, temp, other environmental factors -this liss of proteins nature structure is denaturation -a denatured protein is biologically inactive
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