New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Bio Beginning weeks of what he covers in lecture

Star Star Star Star Star
1 review
by: Kayla Waters

Bio Beginning weeks of what he covers in lecture BIOL 1020

Marketplace > Auburn University > Biology > BIOL 1020 > Bio Beginning weeks of what he covers in lecture
Kayla Waters
GPA 3.4

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

Goes over a lot of vocab, the functional groups, etc.
Principles of Biology
James Zanzot
Class Notes
Biology, auburn, Principles, unit one
25 ?




Star Star Star Star Star
1 review
Star Star Star Star Star
"I love that I can count on (Kayla for top notch notes! Especially around test time..."
Tanner Tremblay IV

Popular in Principles of Biology

Popular in Biology

This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kayla Waters on Wednesday January 20, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 1020 at Auburn University taught by James Zanzot in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 29 views. For similar materials see Principles of Biology in Biology at Auburn University.


Reviews for Bio Beginning weeks of what he covers in lecture

Star Star Star Star Star

I love that I can count on (Kayla for top notch notes! Especially around test time...

-Tanner Tremblay IV


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 01/20/16
-what it means to be alive: cells, reproduction, calories, maintain homeostasis, evolutionary adaption, regulation, growth/development -biology: study of living things -science: study the natural world -scientific method: 1. observe 2. hypothesis *colorful ant-things with jelly beans(colored sugar water)* Biosphere —> Ecosystem —> Communities —> Populations —> Organisms Organisms = organ systems > organs > tissues > organelles > cells Structure / Function -correlated at all levels ex) orchid pretending to be sick with spots so bug visits -we can see this at macroscopic levels(what we can observe) or at finer, microscopic levels -cell is basic unit of structure and function *plant cells are square -Evolution counts for unity and diversity of life —evolution is accepted as fact in bio ex) orchid family super diverse -life continuing depends on heritage Classifying Domain > Kingdom > Phylum > Class > Order > Family > Genus > Species Domain : Eukarya Kingdom : Animalia Phylum : Chordata Class: Mammalia Order: Carnivora Family: Ursidae Genus: Ursus Species: Ursus Americanus -3 Domains total : Bacteria, Archaea, Eukarya ***argument about viruses being alive or not alive*** short answer is no they aren't alive Chapter 2 Key Concepts: -matter consists of chemical elements in pure form and in com nations called compounds -an elements properties depend on structure of atoms -formation and function of molecules depend on chemical bonding between atoms -chemical reactions make and break chemical bonds Matter - takes up space , has mass, solid liquid gas *103 ways to exist as matter..periodic table *plus those other random ones after 103 that science people have created element - substance which cannot be broken down by chemical means *oxygen, iron *we define elements by how many protons they have *to find how many neutrons: atomic mass at bottom of square… avg mass of all the isotopes known for the element isotopes : neutrons varying *valence electrons : electrons in outer electron shell. periodic table gets shape bc valence electrons —electrons are actually pretty far away from nucleus in atoms *coloring periodic table —“the lighter the element is, the more essential it is for life” Hydrogen most abundant *noble gas column has full electron shells… they have all 8 *orbital shapes get weird. look at table compound - substance of two or more elements in fixed ratio *table salt=sodium chloride -learn element symbols on periodic table emergent properties - combine two things, and then that thing has properties you didn't expect *salt is example. sodium is soft metal, chlorine is green gas in elemental state. Bonds polar covalent, ionic Water Key Concepts -Polar Covalent bonds in water molecules result in hydrogen bonding -four emergent properties of water contribute to earths suitability for life -acidic and basic conditions affect living organisms polar covalent bonds —> hydrogen bonding 4 emergent properties of water -cohesion of water molecules -moderation of temperature by water -ice floats (weird) -water is the solution (at least the solvent) -water isn't a good solvent for oils and fats (hydrophobic) -great solvent for everything else because of what compounds do in water.. ions come apart sodium chloride with water example : water people’s arms go toward chloride and backs go to sodium bc back is negative Concentration and Molarity -Amounts of reagents are important -molecular weight = sum of atomic weights -sucrose : C12 H 22 O11 -MW= 12*C + 22*H + 11*O = 342 Da / molecule -Avogadro’s Number —> 6.02 x 10^23 —> 1 mole -converts daltons to grams -342 grams of sucrose is 6.02 x 10^23 molecules EXAMPLE We want to make 5 L of a 0.2 M glucose solution We need to know how many g of glucose glucose: C6H12O6 Step 1: calculate molecular weight Step 2: dimensional analysis Step 3: multiply and cancel terms Molecular Weight: 6*C = 6*12.011 = 72.06 12*H = 12*1.0079 = 12.08 6*O = 6*15.999 = 95.994 = 180.12 Da/molecule OR 180.12 g/mol Dimensional Analysis: 180.12 g/mol * 0.2 mole/L * 5 L/1 = 180.12 g How many moles of water are in 1 L? given 1 mL = 1g 1 L = 1 kg 1L = 1000 mL = 1000g * 1mol/18.02 g = 55.49 mol Acids and Bases -Water is not all H2O -Can dissociate into ions -H2O —> H+ + OH- -1 molecule in 554 million typically -in pure water @ 25C, [H+] = 10^-7 M -Also, [OH-] = 10^-7 M -Ions are more reactive than H2O pH = -log[H+] = 7 -acids donate H+ in aquaeous solutions pH = -log[H+] [H+] can vary from 10^0 - 10^14 M [OH-] varies reciprocally 10^-14 - 10^0 M -10^0 = 1M -pH + pOH = 14 -pH 3 + pOH = 11 8.26.15 pH - negative log of concentration of hydrogen ions -vinegar acidic, ammonia basic (adding more hydroxide ions) in experiment -oxygen is electronegative —pulls electrons towards it -water is highly reactive substance.. why is that beneficial for life? it bonds and makes stuff -pH scale measures protons -pH scale is logarithmic *if you go from 7 to 8 on pH scale, protons decrease by 10. 7 to 9, protons decrease by 100 bc 10^10 (logarithmic) -buffer - keeps pH from changing dramatically *ex. bicarbonate in our blood *buffers only function in a range of pH *buffers normally don't function in really high or really low pH -ions have full valence shells, so that makes them more stable, but not less reactive because not neutral. unless it is neutral, then its like a noble gas Ch 4 — Carbon -same formula, but we can rearrange in different ways -3 types of isomers *structural isomers *cis-trans (cis is on the same side…alliteration) (trans means across) (cis and trans are 2 different things) *enantiomers — mirror images of each other (the example with purple, red, blue & purple, blue, red) -Asymmetric carbon- bonded to four different atoms or molecules Functional groups (7) recognize, 1. hydroxyl 2. amino 3. carboxyl 4. sulfhydryl 5. phosphate 6. methyl 7. carbonyl 5.4 - proteins include a diversity of structures, resulting in a wide range of functions • proteins account for more than 50% of the dry mass of most cells • protein functions include structural support, storage, transport, cellular communications, movement, and defense against foreign substances Storage proteins function: store amino acids ex) casein, protein of milk Hormonal proteins function: coordination of ex) Contractile and motor proteins function: movement ex) Defensive Proteins function: protection against disease ex) Transport Proteins function: transport of substances ex) Structural Proteins function: support ex) keratin in hair, horns, feathers, collagen and elastin Polypeptides -unbranched polymers built from the same set of 20 amino acids -a protein is a biologically functional molecule that consists of one or more polypeptides Amino Acids -20 different ones -linked by peptide bonds -polypeptide is polymer of amino acids -each polypeptide has a unique linear sequence of amino acids, with a carboxyl end (C- terminus) and an amino end (N-terminus) Protein Structure • functional protein consists of one or more polypeptides precisely twisted, folded, and coiled into a unique shape • Levels 1. primary structure is unique sequence of aa *order of letters in a long word *based on genetic 2. secondary consists of coils and folds in the polypeptide chain *result from hydrogen bonds between repeating constituents of the polypeptide backbone 3. tertiary is determined by interactions among various side chains (r groups) *interactions include hydrogen bonds, ionic bonds, hydrophobic, van der waals 4. quaternary results when a protein consists of multiple polypeptide chains *collagen is a fibrous protein consisting of 3 polypeptides coiled like a rope *hemoglobin is a globular protein consisting of 4 pp: 2 alpha 2 beta Sickle-Cell results from a single amino acid substitution in the protein hemoglobin Determines protein structure… -physical and chemical conditions -alterations in pH, salt concentration, temp, other environmental factors -this liss of proteins nature structure is denaturation -a denatured protein is biologically inactive


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

25 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"

Anthony Lee UC Santa Barbara

"I bought an awesome study guide, which helped me get an A in my Math 34B class this quarter!"

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."


"Their 'Elite Notetakers' are making over $1,200/month in sales by creating high quality content that helps their classmates in a time of need."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.