Class Note for ECOL 182R with Professor Huxman at UA 2
Class Note for ECOL 182R with Professor Huxman at UA 2
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Date Created: 02/06/15
Posted on web 22007 at 530 pm Evolution of Photoautotrophy Ecol 182 2222007 3 Summary from last time We talked about BiosynTheTic paThway Does This presen r 5ammolevulmlc cad an evolu rlonar39y l problem pr39oTochlor39ophyllidae i chlorophle c Does biosyn rhesis chlorophyllidea r39ecapi rula re chloroph Ila y chlorophle b bacTer39ia chlorophylls EVOIU I IOHOF Y solu rions Dimeric protein complex reaction center Converts that energy to a usable form Types 1 ironsulfur clusters 2 pheophytin and quinones Light harvesting structures Photosystem I uses reduces NADP to NADPH H Photosystem II uses light energy to oxidize water molecules producing electrons protons and OZ STEROMA ow H Yr 39 39 2 l 7639 39 Plastocyanin 39 if gradien Oxidation W 1 of water LUIIMEN high Hquot Evidence for The endosymbiotic origin of eukaryote photosynthesis Coexis rence of mul riple pho rosys rems when bo rh can be found in isola rion in na rur39e Similari ries be rween cyanobac rer39ia and chloroplas rs Spirochaeles Chlamydiales Cyanobacteria Chloroplasts BACTERIA Mitochondria Proteobacteria ARCHAEA PLANTAE Remaining EUKARYA Regulation of Photosynthesis where does the ATP and NADPH following light harvesting The Calvin cycle Carboxylation Reducing Regenerating Turns out there is plenty of light energy most of the time what regulates photosynthetic rate is carboxylation The CalvinBenson Cycle Ribulose 15bisphosphoTe cor39boxylose oxygenose rubisco coTolyzes The fixoTion of 02 inTo o 5cor39bon compound r39ibulose 15 bisphosphoTe RuBP An inTer39medioTe 6cor39bon compound forms which is unsToble and breaks down To form Two 3cor39bon molecules of 3P6 see fig 814 Rubisco is The mosT obundonT pr39oTein in The world The CalvinBenson Cycle Consis rs of Three or39 four processes FixaTion of CO2 To RuBP catalyzed by r39ubisco mp ATP NAUPH PEA fri ose P PCR EYE LE J Pi RuBP hexose P C02 Reducing To G3P uses ATP and NADPH STARCH RegenemTion Ru BP 7 uses ATP Transpor39T by inorganic phosphate r erp DP ATP NADPH I b C ADP I I I 1 ATP g m g A a 39 2 p A PER f osap h mse CYCLE G p RUBP hexosehp C02 mp UDPG STARCH u rf ppi C02 CALVIN BENSON CYCLE 6 C02 0 9 6 0 6RuBP O 6 Carbon 6 12 6 RUMP Regeneration Reduction Of RuBP and sugar production 1212 O 12 NADP 10 GBP 12 G3P 12131 2 GBP K Other carbori compounds LIFE THE SCIENCE OF mommyv Seventh Edition Figure 513 The CalvinBennquot Cycle 13 2am SmausrAssumaies inc and w H Freeman 5 Cu Making Carbohydrate from 02 Products of photosynthesis are critical for energy on Earth Most photosynthetically acquired energy is released by glycolysis and cellular respiration of photoautotrophs Some of the carbon incorporates into amino acids lipids and nucleic acids Some of the stored energy is consumed by heterotrophs where glycolysis and respiration release the stored energy Con rrols over phoTosynThesis Spa rial heir39ar39chy is impor ran r for39 unders randing pho rosyn rhe ric regulation 11a Thylakoids L1ght v Thylakoid a Arrangement of cells in a C3 leaf Upper epidermis quot 39Vem Spongy mesophy cell Lower epidermis CO exxernal air Sunlight LIFE THE SCIENCE OF BIOLOGY Samm Edilian Figum a The Ingre ianls for Phaiosynmasis 2004 STnanarAssacrahs Imam w H Freeman 5 c Factors shaping constraints over photosynthetic rates a series of heirarchical controls with multiple tradeoffs hinge P Relative allocation of Tradeoff between Leaf lifespan returns nitrogen to carboxylation exchanges of water and on C amp N investment versus light harvesting carbon Cowan 1977 reproductive timing and Field and Mooney 1986 Cowan and Farqhuar output Bloom 1986 Farqhuar et al 1980 1977 Bazzaz 1996 Other issues Phoforespir a rion Rubisco is a carboxylase adding COZ To RuBP IT can also be an oxygenase adding 02 To RuBP Phofor39espir39a39l39ion and Its Consequences Phoforespira39rion RuBP 02 gt phosphoglycola re 3P6 Glycola re diffuses in ro organelles called peroxisomes Peroxisomes conver39f glycola re To glycine Glycine diffuses in ro mi rochondr39ia and is conver39fed To glycer39a re and 602 Figure 8 5 Organelles of Photoresplratlon LIFE THE SCIENCE OF EIOLDGV Seventh Edilion Figure 315 Organslles n1 Phntolespira on Ln 2m Smausv Assnmauas W and w H Freeman E Cu Phofor39espir39a39l39ion and Its Consequences Pho ror39eSpir39a rion uses The ATP and NADPH produced in ligh r r39eac rions Rubisco ac rs as an oxygenase if COZ is very low and 02 is high Sunlight u mg mg arming mm m aw m Wm pmmmm Am a K mm m z Upper epidermis Vein Spongy mesophyll cell Lower epidermis Big Questions What have been the important constraints and or principles that have shaped the evolution of plants Important particularities on evolution and speciation in plants RA Fisher 1958 Fundamental Theorem of Natural Selection But plants do two additional tricks that enhance genetic variation 4 Polyploidy 5 Hybridization Multicellularity and plant evolution Multicellularity evolved more than once Multicellularity has several interesting advantages When is an organism multicellular When neighboring cells adhere interact and physiologically communicate Contact is achieved in four ways 1 T ighl junctions proteins in membranes that bond neighboring cells 2 Desmosomes intracellular laments that adjoin cells often creating a space for material movement 3 Gap junctions pores surrounded by transmembrane proteins direct material movement between cells 4 Plasmodesmata open channels within the plant cell wall that connect cells directly Multicellular plant Single living protoplast of adjoining cells Cell membranes which line plasmodesmata are continuous from one cell to the next Water and small molecules may pass with relative ease essentially through the whole plant Material ow may be modified by altering number and location of plasmodesmata What is a plant Plants are photosynthetic eukaryotes A more derived group of plants is called the embryophytes Plants appear monophyletic forming a single branch of the evolutionary tree so says your book gt Brown plantsquot Stramenopiles J Ancestral u organism amp gt Red plants J amp ChlorophytesKm Charophytes gtquotGreen plantsquot P1 t Embryophytes an ae LIFE THE SCIENCE OF BIDLaGY Savant Edition Flglna 291 What Is a Plum r 2004 Smauar Assocrznes me am w H Freeman amp Cm Diversity of Embrophytes Embryophytes fall out into 10 phyla Three phyla liverworts hornworts and mosses derived in that order lack tracheids and are collectively referred to as the nontracheophytes Seven include members possessing welldeveloped vascular systems called the tracheophytes Table 291 in your book lists the groups and their de ning characteristics good source for important knowledge hint Unique characteristics of plants Alternation of generations is a universal feature of the life cycles of plants The multicellular diploid plant is called the Sporophyte The sporangia on the sporophyte produce haploid unicellular spores by meiosis The multicellular haploid plant formed by mitosis of a spore is called the gametophyte The gametophyte produces haploid gametes The fusion of two gametes results in the formation of a diploid cell the zygote and the cycle repeats Multicellular gametophyte Spore Gamel39es I HAPLOID n DIPLOID 2n Multiccllular SpUl Oph y te Figure 292 in the book Sporophyte generation from the zygote through the adult multicellular diploid plant Gametophyte generation from the spore through the adult multicellular haploid plant to the gamete Charophytes a group of green algae appear to be the closest living relative of Embryophytes These organisms now occupy the margins of ponds or marshes meaning that the jump to a terrestrial environment was in close proximity a Chara sp stonewort b Coleoclzaete Sp LIFE THE SCIENCE OF BIOLOGY Savenlh Edition Figula 25311 Closasi Relatives 01 Land Flam 92001 Sinauer Assnmales inn and w H Freeman 5 Co The Conquest of the Land Embryophytes invaded the terrestrial environment approximately 400 500 mya Some adaptations to life on land Cuticle Gametangia Embryos Pigments Spore wall thickening Mychorhizzae Stomata Aerenchyma
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