Chapter 12 Notes & Key Terms: CH 102
Chapter 12 Notes & Key Terms: CH 102 CH 102
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Taylor Lee on Wednesday January 20, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CH 102 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Martin Bakker in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 28 views. For similar materials see INTRODUCTORY CHEMISTRY (GL) in Chemistry at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
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Date Created: 01/20/16
Chapter 12 Notes & Key Terms Key Terms (Checkout Chapter 12 Flashcards!!) - Intermolecular Force - Condensation - Crystalline solid - Volatile - Amorphous Solid - Non-Volatile - Dispersion Force (London Force) - Heat (Enthalpy) of Vaporization - Dipole- Dipole Force - Dynamic Equilibrium - Permanent Dipole - Vapor Pressure - Miscibility - Boiling Point - Hydrogen Bonding - Normal Boiling Point - Hydrogen Bond - Clausius-Clapeyron Equation - Ion- Dipole Force - Critical Temperature - Surface Tension - Critical Pressure - Viscosity - Sublimation - Capillary Action - Deposition - -Cohesive Forces - Melting point - Adhesive Forces - Melting/ Fusion - Vaporization - Freezing Notes & “Need to Know” Facts • The strength of intermolecular forces is determined by the structure of the molecule that they hold together. -For example, strengths of the intermolecular forces of solids, liquids, and gases differ due to various things, such as: density, volume, shape, boiling point, etc. • Density is a prime factor in determining the strength of intermolecular forces. State Shape Density Volume Strength Compressibility Liquid Not Deﬁnite High Deﬁnite Somewhat Not easily Strong compressible Gas Not Deﬁnite Low Not Deﬁnite Weak Easily compressible Solid Deﬁnite High Deﬁnite Strong Not easily compressible - Crystalline Solid (Orderly Molecules) - Amorphous Solid (Disorderly Molecules) OOOOOOOO OOOOOOOOOO OOOOOOOO OOOOOOOOOOOOOOO OOOOOOOO OOOOOOOO OOOOOOOO OOOOOOOOOOOO • States of matter can transition back and forth by changing the pressure, the temperature (by heating or cooling), or by changing both together. Solid Gas—Solid= Deposition Solid—Gas= Sublimation Liquid—Solid= Freezing Solid—Liquid= Melting Liquid Gas—Liquid= Condensation Liquid—Gas= Evaporation Gas • Distributions of Molecules: Gas Solid Liquid O O OOOOOO O O O O O O OOOOOO O O O O O O OOOOOO O O O O O • Polarizability: A molecule’s ability to become polarized by a change in its electron distribution. - Polarizability increases with the molecule’s number of electrons, along with a more disperse electron cloud. • Clausius-Clapeyron Equation: P1 DH vap 1 ln (---) = ---- (--- - —) P R T T 2 2 1 P = Pressure D Hva= (Delta) Heat of VaporizatT = Temperature (K) R = Gas Constant (8.3145 J/K x mol) •Heat of Sublimation: () Energy needed to change 1 mole of a solid to its gaseous state. •Phase Change Facts: - Increasing pressure changes a gas into a liquid. - Heating changes a liquid into a gas. -Heating changes a solid into a liquid. -Cooling changes a gas into a liquid. -Cooling changes a liquid into a solid. • When Intermolecular Force strength increases: -surface tension: increases -viscosity: increases -melting point: increases -boiling point: increases -vapor pressure: decreases • Intermolecular Forces ranked Strongest to Weakest: Ion- Dipole Force (Strongest) Hydrogen Bonding Dipole- Dipole Force Dispersion/ London Force (Weakest) • Other “Need to Know” Facts: -The vapor pressure of a liquid can be affected by: temperature, the type of liquid, and the addition of a solute. - If surface area increases, the vapor pressure will stay the same. - Weak intermolecular forces result in more volatile liquids. -The vapor pressure of a liquid will increase as the temperature increases. - The viscosity of a liquid will decrease as the temperature increases. - The rate of vaporization will increases as the temperature and surface area increases. - The rate of vaporization will decrease if the intermolecular forces become stronger. - High surface tension is a result of strong intermolecular forces. - High viscosity is a result of strong intermolecular forces.
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