Lecture 2 1/25/16 Notes
Lecture 2 1/25/16 Notes BZ 120
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by John Bacovcin on Wednesday January 20, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BZ 120 at Colorado State University taught by Dr. Ingrid Jane Slette in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 145 views. For similar materials see Principles of Plant Biology in Biology at Colorado State University.
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Clutch. So clutch. Thank you sooo much John!!! Thanks so much for your help! Needed it bad lol
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Date Created: 01/20/16
Notes on Lecture 2 Plant Cell Structure Continued Monday 1/25/16 Bacterial Structure: Like plants they have an inner membrane and a cell wall. Their inner folding looks like a lot like the folds mitochondria have. These bacteria are the precursors for mitochondria in eukaryotic cells. Photosynthetic bacteria: Are the precursors for chloroplasts for eukaryotic plant cells. Accomplishes photosynthesis within the thylakoid membrane. The predominant theory is the “endosymbiont” theory. This theory states that the mitochondria and chloroplasts of modern eukaryotic cells are actually ancient bacteria that where eaten by ancient eukaryotic cells and then where used as energy generators instead of being broken down like normal. This is called a symbiotic relationship. This theory is supported by the fact that mitochondria and chloroplasts have different ribosomes and the fact that they divide similarly to typical bacterium. Plant Cell Components Continued: Microtubules: These are tiny hollow fibers found in all cells made up of a protein called tubulin. This cell structure is responsible for cell structure and movement of vesicles and other such things within the cell. Vesicles will use these microtubules to move about the cell. Think of the microtubules as the highways of the cell. Microtubules also help with the motility of the cell by making up structures like flagella, whip like structures that help move the cell. Microtubules also play a role in cell division, meiosis/mitosis, by forming the spindle fibers that pull chromosomes apart during cell division. The Cell Wall: This structure is seen primarily in plant cells, but it is also found in some bacteria and fungi. The cell wall is a dead organelle. It is made up of cellulose. Hemicellulose, and pectic substances(pectin) Cellulose: Is a glucose polymer. This means that it is a sting of glucoses strung together to make a long string of glucoses. These polymers bind together to form cellulose fibers. These fibers then bind together to make larger and larger fibers. Hemicellulose: Is a polymer of various sugars that mix in with the cellulose fibers. Peptin: A glue like material that fills the gaps that can form between cellulose fibers, holds water, and helps make the cell wall more pliable. The cell wall also has various other proteins. Some cell walls also have wax-like molecules that help to control the flow of water in and out of the cell. Two examples of these are cutin and suberin. Lignin: Is a very dense hard material makes the cell wall rigid and stiff. Think of hard woods like oak or walnut or the pits in pitted fruits like cherries or peaches. Cell Wall Formation: The cell wall can have two distinct layers the primary and secondary layers. o The primary layer is the outer wall and is made up of mostly cellulose and pectin. This makes the primary cell wall very pliable and is formed when the cell is dividing and is helpful for when the cell is still growing. o The secondary layer is formed when the cell stops growing and not all plant cells get a secondary layer. This second layer is made of a large amount of lignin. The cells that get a secondary layer are important for transporting water and strengthening of the organism. o The second layer is not always evenly distributed and often includes channels called pits that aid in the transportation of water. o This layer is also made in between the primary cell wall and the plasma membrane. The cellulose used in the primary and secondary layers is produced in the plasma membrane. All of the other building blocks are made in the intercellular space and are transported to the outer membrane by vesicles. Plants as a multicellular organism: In between adjacent cells is the middle lamella, a substance that acts like superglue bonding the two cell primary cell walls together made up of calcium and magnesium pectate. Another connecting structure that is important for plants to function as multicellular organism is the plasmodesmata. Plasmodesmota are tubes made up of an outer membrane made of plasma membrane, and an inner coating of endoplasmic reticulum. This allows for the flow of water and other materials essential for function between the cells.
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