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CDFS 110 Lecture Notes: Week 1

by: Mikaela Spence

CDFS 110 Lecture Notes: Week 1 CDFS 110

Marketplace > West Virginia University > Child Development > CDFS 110 > CDFS 110 Lecture Notes Week 1
Mikaela Spence
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About this Document

Week 1 notes of lecture based materials.
Families Across the Life-Span
Katie Snider
Class Notes




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Popular in Child Development

This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Mikaela Spence on Wednesday January 20, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CDFS 110 at West Virginia University taught by Katie Snider in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 56 views. For similar materials see Families Across the Life-Span in Child Development at West Virginia University.


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Date Created: 01/20/16
West Virginia University CDFS 110 Katie Snider Week 1 Lecture Notes Introduction to Human Development and Theories of Development Development • We will study the development from the prenatal period to death • As we grow up, we develop in three ways o Physically o Mentally o Socially/ Emotionally • Influenced by many different things/ people Influences on Development • Age o What stage you are in life § Puberty • History o What you have lived through § Hurricane Katrina § 9/11 • Non-Normative o Something that only effects that individual (not masses of people like a natural disaster) § Parents divorcing § Death of a parent § House burning down Issues in Development • Continuous vs. Discontinuous o Continuous § Constantly building new skills on ones the individual already has o Discontinuous § Only gaining new skills when the individual has reached a new stage in its life • Nature vs. Nurture o Do our genes or environment depict our development § Genes • Actual genetic makeup- DNA • Personalities/ Temperament § Environment • Where the individual grew up • Relationships with parents • Sociocultural Influences o Culture the individual is raised in o Ethnicity o The time period in which the individual grew up Theory vs. Opinion • Theory- set of statements that describe something, predict something, or explain something o Can be tested multiple times o Can be verified multiple times • Opinion- individual’s personal view formed about something o Can’t be tested o Can’t be verified • Theories help better understand development o Lead to intervention, diagnosis, and treatment Freud and Erikson • Freud Psychosexual Theory o Ego § Believed it was the mind’s way to adapt to reality o Superego § Last thing to develop § When individual identify their parents • Erikson Psychosocial Theory o Social Interaction- Exchange between two or some people o Believed development was parallel to culture o One of the first people to acknowledge the LIFESPAN development § LIFESPAN- age-related changes that occur from birth, throughout a persons' life, into and during old age. Bandura’s Social Learning Theory • Model o Observable learning • Reinforcement increases chance of it being a repeated behavior • Reinforcement is not required o Already from books, movies, etc. Piaget’s Cognitive Theory • Adaption is the center of his theory • Mind works to understand the world around the individual to get mental balance How do we process information? • Encode o Gathering • Retention o Holding • Retrieve o Pulling out information when it is necessary Ecological Systems Theory -- Represented by a chart of all the different things that effect an individual-- • Microsystem- Has activities/ interaction patterns in individual’s surroundings o Relationships o Roles o Bi-directional • Mesosystem- Connections between microsystems o Recognizes microsystems rely on other things and are bi-directional o Made up of more than one microsystem • Exosystem- Includes situations individual might not be a part of, but it still influences them and their development o Formal and informal institutions of society § Work places and social network • Macrosystem- Includes cultures, laws, values, etc o Outermost layer of the chart • Chronosystem- Time and history o Steadiness and change in the individual and their environment Ethology • Imprinting o Learning at a particular stage in life where an individual recognized and responds to their environment Scientific Method 1. Develop a theory 2. Think of a process, question, or problem to test 3. Make a hypothesis o If ____ , then ___. 4. Test it o Perform experiments o Observe 5. Collect and analyze data 6. Make conclusions about what you have learned Collecting data • Systematic Observations o Setting up our study so that we eliminate or reduce bias • Naturalistic Observations o Collecting data without manipulating the environment • Conducting surveys • Conducting Interviews o Clinical interviews § Conversation styled § Wants the individual’s point of view o Structural Interview § Every individual is asked the same question in the same way § Get answers from groups • Standardized tests • Experience sampling o Asks participants to stop and write down information at certain times • Physiological measures o Quantitative measurement and of structure and function in clinical research • Case study o Record of research § Census General Research Designs • Correlational Research o Shows the bonds between different variables o Does not show or discuss cause and effect • Experimental Research o Discusses cause and effect o May not apply in real life Correlation Coefficients • Magnitude of Correlation Coefficients o Quantitative number of the data’s relationship between variables § Number between 0 and 1 § The closer the magnitude is to one, the closer the relationship is between the two variables • Positive Correlation Coefficients o When the magnitude of one variable increases, so does the other variable • Negative Correlation Coefficients o When the magnitude of one variable increases, the other variable decreases Variables • Independent Variable o The variable that the experimenter changes or manipulates o Expected to cause a change in the second variable o Example: § Distance that a pot falls • Dependent Variable o The variable that the experimenter measures, but does not change o Expected to be influenced by the independent variable o Example: § The amount of time that the pot is falling The Time Span of Research • Cross-sectional Research o Studies all the participants at one time • Longitudinal Research o Studies the same people over a period of time • Sequential Research o Studies different age groups over a period of time Ethics and Rights of Research Participants • Informed Consent o Detailed description of why and how an individual is going to be tested o The participant has the right to walk away from the experiment at any time o Requires the participants signature • Protection from harm o Participant cannot be harmed physically or mentally in the duration of the experiment • Privacy o The participants name and information is confidential • Knowledge of Results o The participant has the right to know their results • Beneficial Treatments o The benefits of the experiment have to outweigh the risks of the experiment


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