Notes South Asia
Notes South Asia Geog 1010
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Catherine Olivia sicard on Wednesday January 20, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Geog 1010 at Auburn University taught by Dr. Brysch in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 22 views. For similar materials see Global Geography in Geography at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 01/20/16
East Asia Monday, March 7, 2016 11:04 AM In 1949 Mao Zedong and his communist party defeated Chiang Kai Shek and his National Party for control over China While Mao controlled China until his death in 1976, Kai shek and his followers fled where and established a new gov Mongolia, Pakistan, Japan, Taiwan Harnessing Rivers Huang He aka Yellow river: windblown sediment blown southward onto the North China Plain from Siberia Lighter particles - silt - loess plains Sand: Gobi Desert Erodes easily River cuts through loess - frequently flooding Changes course frequently Mainly rural society; dependent on river systems 6K BCE: cultivation of rice in Huang He Valley Qin Emperor - 6K years later initiates first large scale irrigation system: canal to Wei Valley Stabilized food supply - extended size of empire united China and grew the population Yangtze River Yangtze in China: lifeblood of freshwater Recently - source of power for millions 1992: Chinese Gov decides to build - 3 Gorges Dam Growing population and flood control Construction 1994 - 2012 Protest from environmentalist and geologist (global to local) o Along fault lines o Block migrating aquatic species, trap sediment, and change water temp Species extinction o Displaced 1.3 million Chinese Flooded a gorge Climate Farthest North: Subarctic (Siberia) North: humid continental (cold) Influenced by Pacific in east and Himalayas in west Pacific Ocean relatively consistent temp maritime effect Keeps temp range in coastal areas smaller than interior locations East: humid subtropical o Based on latitudes = similar to US E to W - increasingly dry: Himalayas create rain shadow effect o Steppe and desert climates How does east Asia's location on the Pacific Ring of Fire Influence the Region? Physical landscape ranges: volcanic mountainous islands in Pacific Ocean, vast Tibetan plateau in the west, Himalayas divide E and S Asia Japan - western edge of Pacific Ring of Fire Active tectonic zones at plate boundaries Volcanism Magma generated by subduction of oceanic plate forms arcs of islands or mountains o Islands of Japan - volcanic islands acr, parallel to plate boundaries and trenches 3-11-2011 Tohoku Earthquake and Tsunami Japan Trench and Kuril Trench Pacific and North American plates o One plate moved 80 ft 9.0 EQ generated o Tsunami o Lasted 5 min Size of waves and scale of destruction depends on serval factors o Configuration of coastline o Amount of plate displacement o Distance of EQ epicenter from coastline Quake released the energy equivalent to 8K Hiroshima bombs Aftermath o Killed between 16K and 20K people o Many fled inland but near Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant o EQ cut power to nuclear rectors Pumps water to keep the reactor cool Backup generator were also disabled by EQ Reactor melt down and explosion o 170K people evacuated from their homes o Gov finds radioactivity Tsunami and Nuclear Disaster Public health disaster Economic impacts Contamination of water o Agricultural land o The food chain o Uninhabitable land Japan's location at the intersection of 4 plates and 2 major subduction zones means that Eqs and Tsunamis will continue to impact the region Languages in EA Follow trade routes - thousands of years of spatial interaction Cultural links Altaic Sino - Tibetan o 7 dialects o Non mutually intelligible o Mandarin Korean and Japonic Colonial history Ming Empire (1368 - 1644CE) European colonization - change flow of goods, world economy, and political organization of people around the world Japanese colonization had a bigger impact than European Modern colonialism in E Asia Portuguese - 1st Europeans to reach Japan and establish trade in Nagasaki Dutch, british, french Trade in spices and expand ports and trade beyond SE Asia o Open ports In Japan and China Port cities Portuguese- occupied Macau 1557 European colonizers: Opium War ended 1842, Chinese loses efforts to stop trade and concedes o Treaty: 1842 granted British port of Hong Kong then by lease 1898 5 more treaty ports o Opened to Europeans and Japanese to establish business By end of 19th century- Russians, Japanese, Germans, British, and French claimed spheres of influence Japanese Colonialism Tokuguwa Shogunate: 250 years samurais held power in a feudal system (lords) Only traded with Netherlands because only interested in trade not diffusing religion and culture Trade - cash based economy- undermining of samurai power 1868 Meiji Restoration - opened Japan economy and politics 1895: defeated China 1904 war with Russia and won 1910 overtook Korean Peninsula Needed Korea to grow their ind sector - gown ag to fund manufacturing Empire eventually included SE Asia and Pacific Islands Colonialism felt profoundly in Korea 1910 - 1945 o Forced Koreans to learn Japanese o Tens of thousands of young Korean Women - Comfort women Drew US into WW2 - 12 - 7-1941 Pearl Harbor Japan defeated by Allies o Hiroshima and Nagasaki (1945) o Ended Japan's colonialism domination Division of Korean Peninsula Hearths of Daoism, Shintoism and Confucianism Global relations largest influence: Buddhism o Mahayana and Vajrayana China - mixed with indigenous relations Japan: Shintoism Korean Peninsula - Christianity, Buddhism, traditional Daoism (Taoism) Hearth : China. Ethnic religion Founder - Lao Tzu or Tao Te Ching: 6th c. BCE Chuang Tzu: 3rd c BCE wrote Inner Chapters Philosphy: seek to live in accord with Dao - the way How humans fit into the cosmos, live in order with the world, nature Han Dynasty- mixed with animist beliefs - religion Li Yuan- founded Tang Dynasty o Helped diffuse Daoism Shintoism Hearth - Japan, ethnic religion 8k t0 300 BCE no single founder Translation: "way of the gods" o Teachings based on nature Shinto shrines: torii - gateway that makes the sacred nature of Shinto shrines 19th c: emperor - Shintoism is state religion Post WW2 gov separated Shintoism from state Buddhism Different from hearth - India - Tibet and Nepal- E Asia Silk road - trade route Time of contact o China- Daoist o Japan- Shinto Emperor's roles Population Asia - 1/2 world's population 4.2 billion East Asia - 2 billion People clustered in cities Majority Japan and south Korea o Urban North korea o Rural Undervaluing girls in E Asia Because of cultural norms- society conditions = low levels of education for women and patriarchal societies E Asia o Social conditions different within the region Determine different factors for gender imbalance o Racial - human intervention Female infanticide present Confucianism Kong Fu Tzu- Confucius o Born in 551 BCE Chou Dynasty Hearth China more of a cultural philosophy (ethnic) o Be kind to others, know what is right, serve one's superiors loyally = loyal to rulers and families loyal to the father Different association with preference for sons- tied to hierarchical structures of society, dynasties (Han)= hierarchical differences - upper class China - history and impact of one child policy Now 1 couple - 2 children Sex ratios throughout china Might assume poorer families would abort females Tibet only province with normal sex ratio Most imbalanced in south and east- wealthiest provinces How have E Asian countries successfully grown their economies Open to foreign direct investment Role of gov encouraging investment Cultural practices influences business management Asia's turn in history China grown 2000-12 cheap labor China eco changed o Development of communism o Central planning o Economic reforms Communism 1949: Mao Zedong established communist gov - peoples republic of China Defeated in Civil War: Chiang Kai- shek and his National Party for control over China - Fled to Taiwan - Republic of China Mao read Marx and worked with Soviets to develop a 5 year plan 5 year plans 1953 to 1957 : 1st 5 year plan o Collectivization of agriculture and privately owned industry o Statistically it worked - gov owned 67.5 % of industry, rest joint partnership, production and income 1958 to 1962: Great Leap Forward o Collective farms to communes More ag and industry o Generate greater food production - workers work in heavy industries (steel) o Plan backfired - loss of farming productivity - massive famine and death of 20 million Cultural Revolution 1966: Remove resistance to communism Established Red Guard: students charged with destroying old habits o Customs, habits, culture , thinking Used the little red book = collected quotations from Mao Legacy of Mao Communist Party - unequivocal control Leaders - massive power All scales, still call shots Party >66 million members o Majority - men 30 o Privilege across to better housing and jobs Party controls everyday life o Censors media, controls access to internet, provides housing and jobs fear used to intimidate dissidents, force and brutality used to make examples of critics 1979 Chinese Eco Reforms Post Mao's death 1976 Deng Xiaoping - capitalist during cultural revolution o Opponents grained control of China Added a pragmatic spin to communism Establish special economic zones o Open to FDI, low taxes, relaxed importing and exporting regulation, simplified land leases 5 became foundation of modern eco Eco system have changed markedly Ag Reform Deng 1979: abandons commune system Responsibility system; reestablish household/ family a basic unit of farm production Farmers did not own land but contracted with gov allowed to choose what to plant, how to produce it, and where to sell Beginning of industrialization Industrial Ag 2001 + 2001: joined WTO Concentrated on advancing science and technology in Ag o Goal - higher yields Why? 20% of worlds population and 10% of worlds arable land 2005 OECD - abundant labor with low mechanization Move to marginal lands - use of fertilizers per acre is one of highest rate in the world Policy - improve ag, competition, tech, water - efficient ag, subsidize use of technology Seized farmland Ports in E Asia Ports - connection production on land and distribution overseas o Smaller ports amalgamate containers o Larger ports- major nodes in global trade network Containers gather at port organized and placed on ships for world distribution Hubs connecting small ports o Large ports compete for market share Reduce port charges Provide incentives for use Investing in smaller feeder ports Manufacturing growth in China Impact other parts region o Major container ports = Busan, S Korea; Kaohsiung, Taiwan; Ningbo, china and shanghai, china Chinese Premier Outlines 5 year plan as Growth Pressure Mounts 3-5-16 Chinese Premier Li Keqiang delivered his annual address before China's Parliament Growth and urbanization Tech and infrastructure Going green, social welfare Uyghur in northwestern China Uyghur people are often harassed by the government and accused of promoting a separatist movement and acts of terrorism The religion of the Uyghur people is thought to be the basis for this persecution - Islam Related to domestic issues Economics Demilitarization Zone of Korea DMZ is 150 mile long, 2.5 mile wide stretch of land, has been a mandatory military free zone since 1953 - and about 1 million active land miles, more than 2500 a square mile, have ensured it remained Personality cult Arises when an individual uses mass media, propaganda or other methods to create an idealized, heroic and at times worshipful image, often through unquestioning flattery and praise
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