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Week 1-2 Notes

by: Hannah Stephens

Week 1-2 Notes Soc 2010-011

Hannah Stephens
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About this Document

These notes cover what we went over during the first and second week of school.
Intro to Sociology
Jennifer L. Holland
Class Notes
sociology, Intro to sociology, Clemson University




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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Hannah Stephens on Wednesday January 20, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Soc 2010-011 at Clemson University taught by Jennifer L. Holland in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 57 views. For similar materials see Intro to Sociology in Sociology at Clemson University.


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Date Created: 01/20/16
The  Sociological  Perspective     • Sociology—The  study  of  society   • Social  Location—Where  our  biography  interferes  with   history   o Social  Class   o Age   o Gender   o Religion   o Educational  Background   • The  Origins  of  Sociology   o Originated  in  mid  1800s  in  Europe   o The  Enlightenment  Period  and  Scientific  Method   ▯ Look  at  human  behavior  via  scientific  method   ▯ Industrial  Revolution   o Industrial  Revolution   ▯ People  move  from  rural  to  urban  settings   ▯ Fall  of  monarchies   ▯ New  ways  of  life   • The  First  Sociologists   o Auguste  Comte   ▯ “Father”  of  Sociology   ▯ Coined  the  term  “sociology”   ▯ Idea  to  study  society  scientifically   o Herbert  Spencer   ▯ Believed  the  information  gathered  should  just   be  used  for  research—not  to  help  people   because  it  would  interfere  with  survival  of   fittest  notion.   ▯ Came  up  with  “survival  of  fittest”  notion—not   Darwin!   ▯ Social  Darwinism   o Karl  Marx   ▯ Socialism   ▯ Felt  like  bourgeoisie  was  exploiting  the   proletariat  (working  class)   ▯ Felt  that  proletariat  would  overthrow   bourgeoisie  and  create  society  where  everyone   was  equal  and  would  “share  the  wealth”   ▯ Named  1  of  3  greatest  modern  day  thinkers  by   WSJ   • Along  with  Einstein  and  Froid   ▯ Believed  that  religion  was  the  opioid  of  social   change   o Sociological  Researchers   ▯ Emile  Durkheim   • Looked  at  rates  and  factors  of  suicide  in   different  countries  in  Europe   o Women,  people  married,  employed   and  part  of  a  tight-­‐knit  related   community  less  likely     o People  less  socially  integrated  more   likely  to  commit  suicide   o Still  true  today!!   ▯ Max  Weber   • Enemy  of  Karl  Marx   • Believed  that  changes  in  society  was   largely  due  to  religion   o People  very  religious  drive  social   change!!   • American  Sociologists—More  interested  in  activism  and   reform  (helping  people)   o Jane  Addams   ▯ Settlement  house   ▯ Taught  children  and  immigrants   o W.E.  DuBois   ▯ Graduated  from  Harvard   ▯ Created  NAACP   ▯ Interested  in  race  relations   o C.  Wright  Mills   ▯ 1%  vs.  social  class   ▯ Interested  in  social  inequality     • Symbolic  Interactionism—Small  scale  sociology;  look  at   communication  and  interaction   o Definition  of  marriage—No  longer  idea  of  lifelong   commitment;  meaning  has  changed  making  it  harder   to  stay  together   • Structural  Functionalism   o Purpose  of  marriage  in  1800s—Have  a  family  in   order  to  have  children  to  help  on  farm,  women  to   take  care  of  house,  man  for  income,  children  don’t   provide  help  for  income  anymore   o Our  functions  have  changed  and  we  don’t  need  our   family  unit  anymore   • Conflict  Theory   o Men  used  to  have  all  the  power  in  marriage   ▯ Rule  of  Thumb   o Now  women  can  lead—More  equality     • Culture   o A  learned  and  shared  way  of  learning  and  doing   that’s  passed  down  through  generations   • Material  Culture   o Clothes   o Technology   o Cars   o Homes  and  buildings   o Reflects  non-­‐material  culture!***   ▯ i.e.  countries  where  women  wear  veils  tells  us   something  about  women’s  status  compared  to   men   ▯ Man  on  tractor—Agriculture  highly  valued,   working  hard   ▯ Read  article  on  it!   o Nonmaterial  Culture   ▯ Usually  look  at  culture  through  lens  of  our  own     ▯ If  we  come  into  contact  with  other  cultures   how  do  we  feel  about  it?   • That  ours  is  better.  Ethnocentric.    We   think  of  our  culture  as  the  standard.   • Cultural  Relativism—Understanding   another  culture  by  putting  yourself  in   their  shoes     o i.e.  In  Kenya  people  hold  their   friend’s  hands   o Language—The  most  important  component  of   culture   ▯ Hard  to  share  without  language   ▯ Allows  ability  to  pass  down  culture   ▯ Connect  with  people  in  the  present   o The  Sapir-­‐Whorf  Hypothesis   ▯ Language  doesn’t  only  allow  us  to   communicate,  it  actually  teaches  us  how  to   think   ▯ Language  is  learned   ▯ Allows  us  to  connect  to  others  and  express  our   thoughts   ▯ Language  shapes  the  way  we  think  about   things—shaping  the  way  we  act   o Values,  Norms,  and  Sanctions   ▯ In  America:    Success,  winning,  education   ▯ Sanctions:    Rewards/punishments  for   achieving  values   • Money,  degree,  raise,  promotion   o Folkways,  Mores,  and  Taboos   ▯ Taboos—Very  small  set  of  rules  that  are   strictly  enforced.  Very  few.   ▯ Mores-­‐-­‐the  essential  or  characteristic  customs   and  conventions  of  a  community   o Subcultures—Within  a  dominant  culture  there  are   subcultures  as  well  as  counter  cultures.   • U.S.  Values   o Hard  Work   o Science  and  Technology   o Romantic  Love   o Living  the  “American  Dream”   • Value  Contradictions   o Social  Change  Movements   o With  progression  of  Society     ▯ Due  to  wealth  and  age  of  society   ▯ Increase  in  technology=  Increase  in  leisure   time   o When  cultures  come  in  contact  with  each  other              


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