Week 1-2 Notes
Week 1-2 Notes Soc 2010-011
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MUSI 3583 503
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Hannah Stephens on Wednesday January 20, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Soc 2010-011 at Clemson University taught by Jennifer L. Holland in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 57 views. For similar materials see Intro to Sociology in Sociology at Clemson University.
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Date Created: 01/20/16
The Sociological Perspective • Sociology—The study of society • Social Location—Where our biography interferes with history o Social Class o Age o Gender o Religion o Educational Background • The Origins of Sociology o Originated in mid 1800s in Europe o The Enlightenment Period and Scientific Method ▯ Look at human behavior via scientific method ▯ Industrial Revolution o Industrial Revolution ▯ People move from rural to urban settings ▯ Fall of monarchies ▯ New ways of life • The First Sociologists o Auguste Comte ▯ “Father” of Sociology ▯ Coined the term “sociology” ▯ Idea to study society scientifically o Herbert Spencer ▯ Believed the information gathered should just be used for research—not to help people because it would interfere with survival of fittest notion. ▯ Came up with “survival of fittest” notion—not Darwin! ▯ Social Darwinism o Karl Marx ▯ Socialism ▯ Felt like bourgeoisie was exploiting the proletariat (working class) ▯ Felt that proletariat would overthrow bourgeoisie and create society where everyone was equal and would “share the wealth” ▯ Named 1 of 3 greatest modern day thinkers by WSJ • Along with Einstein and Froid ▯ Believed that religion was the opioid of social change o Sociological Researchers ▯ Emile Durkheim • Looked at rates and factors of suicide in different countries in Europe o Women, people married, employed and part of a tight-‐knit related community less likely o People less socially integrated more likely to commit suicide o Still true today!! ▯ Max Weber • Enemy of Karl Marx • Believed that changes in society was largely due to religion o People very religious drive social change!! • American Sociologists—More interested in activism and reform (helping people) o Jane Addams ▯ Settlement house ▯ Taught children and immigrants o W.E. DuBois ▯ Graduated from Harvard ▯ Created NAACP ▯ Interested in race relations o C. Wright Mills ▯ 1% vs. social class ▯ Interested in social inequality • Symbolic Interactionism—Small scale sociology; look at communication and interaction o Definition of marriage—No longer idea of lifelong commitment; meaning has changed making it harder to stay together • Structural Functionalism o Purpose of marriage in 1800s—Have a family in order to have children to help on farm, women to take care of house, man for income, children don’t provide help for income anymore o Our functions have changed and we don’t need our family unit anymore • Conflict Theory o Men used to have all the power in marriage ▯ Rule of Thumb o Now women can lead—More equality • Culture o A learned and shared way of learning and doing that’s passed down through generations • Material Culture o Clothes o Technology o Cars o Homes and buildings o Reflects non-‐material culture!*** ▯ i.e. countries where women wear veils tells us something about women’s status compared to men ▯ Man on tractor—Agriculture highly valued, working hard ▯ Read article on it! o Nonmaterial Culture ▯ Usually look at culture through lens of our own ▯ If we come into contact with other cultures how do we feel about it? • That ours is better. Ethnocentric. We think of our culture as the standard. • Cultural Relativism—Understanding another culture by putting yourself in their shoes o i.e. In Kenya people hold their friend’s hands o Language—The most important component of culture ▯ Hard to share without language ▯ Allows ability to pass down culture ▯ Connect with people in the present o The Sapir-‐Whorf Hypothesis ▯ Language doesn’t only allow us to communicate, it actually teaches us how to think ▯ Language is learned ▯ Allows us to connect to others and express our thoughts ▯ Language shapes the way we think about things—shaping the way we act o Values, Norms, and Sanctions ▯ In America: Success, winning, education ▯ Sanctions: Rewards/punishments for achieving values • Money, degree, raise, promotion o Folkways, Mores, and Taboos ▯ Taboos—Very small set of rules that are strictly enforced. Very few. ▯ Mores-‐-‐the essential or characteristic customs and conventions of a community o Subcultures—Within a dominant culture there are subcultures as well as counter cultures. • U.S. Values o Hard Work o Science and Technology o Romantic Love o Living the “American Dream” • Value Contradictions o Social Change Movements o With progression of Society ▯ Due to wealth and age of society ▯ Increase in technology= Increase in leisure time o When cultures come in contact with each other
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