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Introductory Linguistics Week 1 (January 19 & 21)

by: Shelby Notetaker

Introductory Linguistics Week 1 (January 19 & 21) ANTH 106

Marketplace > Kansas > Linguistics and Speech Pathology > ANTH 106 > Introductory Linguistics Week 1 January 19 21
Shelby Notetaker
GPA 3.5

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About this Document

These are from January 19th (first day of class) and January 21st, the first day of serious material from professor Pye.
Introductory Linguistics
Clifton Pye
Class Notes
Linguistics Pye KU Week1 Language Morphemes Morphology
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Shelby Notetaker on Wednesday January 20, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ANTH 106 at Kansas taught by Clifton Pye in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 15 views. For similar materials see Introductory Linguistics in Linguistics and Speech Pathology at Kansas.

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Date Created: 01/20/16
Linguistics 1.19.2016  Language Patterns o Linguists look for patterns in language structure and language use  “All that glitters is not gold”  “Gold does not glitter”  “Not all that glitters is gold”  “All the King’s horses…” o Identifying inconsistencies in patterns  What is linguistics? o Linguists look for similarities and differences between languages o The main goal is to identify the universal features of human languages that enable children to learn them  What are similarities? o All spoken languages have a constant between consonants and vowels o All languages can express an infinites set of ideas o Children can acquire any human language without special instruction  What are some differences o Hawaiian has 8 consonants o Ekoka (!Kung-Namibia) has 48 consonants o Mam (Mayan-Guatemala) has no pronouns o Fijian (Austronesian-Fiji) o o Spanish (romance) verb: ir0e-go-future. 1 ‘I will go’ o Mohawk (Iroquoian) verb: future repetitive, one inclusive ‘We will scrape the corn off the cob’  Open questions in linguistics o What is meaning?  Understanding the language o What is the relation between language and thought?  We express thoughts through language  Are our thoughts identical with language?  This means different language speakers have different set of thoughts o How do we perceive language sounds? o How are words stored in the brain? o How do we process sentences?  Why is linguistics useful? o Linguistics help people communicate o Help people preserve language o Help computers communicate o Help interpret legal language o Decipher ancient writing  This class: o How to analyze language sounds, words, meanings and sentence structure o How languages change over time o How language marks your identity  Attendance: 10%  Homework exercises: 15%  Written exercises: 15%  Exams: 60% o First exam 15% o Second exam 20% o Final exam 25% 1/21/2016  Morphology- Study of word structure; theory of words o Analyzes types and forms of words, e.g. morph-ology o Words unify all levels of the grammar Phonology  words  syntax (sentences) Semantics (meanings)  What is a word? o Word- the smallest free form of in a language o A form is FREE if it does not occur in a fixed position in relation to another element or if it can occur in isolation  Ex: Dinosaurs are extinct  Are dinosaurs extinct?  Bound Forms o ‘Dinosaurs’ has 2 elements o Plural suffix ‘s’ is a bound form o Bound forms cannot be separated from the form they attach to and cannot occur on their own  What makes words special? o They express meaning o Meanings determine what sound contrasts occur in a language  Ex: pit/bit/sit/lit/kit/mit  Words belong to lexical categories o Nouns- sheep, dog, book o Verbs- bark, learn, can o Prepositions- in, on, at, under o Adjectives- lean, sick, thick o Determiners- a, the, no o Conjunctions- and, on, but, if o Complementizers- that, which  Words can be simple or complex o Simple- contains only one meaningful part  The, dog, bark o Complex- contains multiple parts  Morphology, barks, sheep dog o Morphemes- smallest meaningful elements in a language  Not all morphemes are equal o Root morpheme- determines the core meaning of a word  Bark, morphology, infer o Affix- always attached to a base and modifies its meaning  Roots can be free or bound o Free roots: bark, dog, the, morph o Bound roots: infer, prefer, boysenberry, raspberry, conceive, receive o Most complex English words have free morpheme roots o Verbs in Mohawk and Navajo don’t have roots that are free morphemes  Affixes can be inflectional or derivational o Inflectional- indicate grammatical meanings  Does not change meaning of stem  Two dog –s; are bark –ing  Inflectional affixes in english Function Form Function Form Present tense -s Plural -s Past tense -ed Possessive -s Progressive -ing Comparativ -er e Perfect -en,-ed Superlative -est  Inflectional affixes of Spanish/Mohawk  Spanish (romance) verb: o Ir-e go-future_1 ‘I will go’  Mohawk (Iroquoian) verb: o -µ-ts-ya-kwa-nµhst-ru-ko-7 o Future-repetetive-1exclusive.agent-plural-corn-set5- reversive-perfective.aspect  “we will scrape the corn off the cob”


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