Prions, Viruses, Prokaryotes, and Eukaryotes
Prions, Viruses, Prokaryotes, and Eukaryotes BIOL1006
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Juliette Demboski on Wednesday January 20, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL1006 at The University of Cincinnati taught by Eric Villegas in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 19 views. For similar materials see Power of Plagues in Biology at The University of Cincinnati.
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Date Created: 01/20/16
Prions, Viruses, Prokaryotes, and Eukaryotes Cells – the fundamental units of living organisms (“building blocks”). • Surrounded by a cell surface membrane. • Can reproduce (contains genetic information). • Unicellular – organism made up of only one cell. • Multicellular – organism made up of more than one cell. • Cytoplasm – gel-like matrix that fills the cell (“ground substance”). • Organelles – small “organs” within individual cells. • Nucleus – contains chromosomes where genes and DNA are located. • Mitochondria – the powerhouse of the cell where energy is produced as ATP. • Chloroplast – captures energy from light and converts it into ATP (found in plant cells). • Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) – a system of membranes where proteins are synthesized. • Ribosomes – participate in protein synthesis (some free and associated with the ER). • Golgi apparatus – a system of membranes that gathers simple molecules and combines them to make more complex molecules (completed by adding sugars). • Cell structure: Viruses – attach to living host cells and replicate inside of them to produce more viruses. • Are not living until they attach to a host cell and take it over. o Can’t live or reproduce on their own, must do so through the cell of an organism. • Need an electron microscope to see their structure (smaller than bacteria). • The life cycle of a virus: o Attach – the virus attaches itself to the living host cell and is now alive. o Entry – the virus injects its DNA into the cell for reproduction. o Replication – the injected DNA replicates to produce more viruses. o Biosynthesis – the viral components in the cell are produced and synthesized. § Produces proteins/protein coat, copies of DNA, and RNA. o Assembly – the viral components are assembled in new viruses. o Release – the new viruses leave the host cell (often destroying it) to find other cells where they can replicate themselves as well. Prokaryotes – single-celled organism (unicellular) that lacks a nucleus and organelles. • Surrounded by membranes and a cell wall. • Has some ribosomes, but no mitochondria, ER, or golgi apparatus. • Some have a flagella (tail-like structure) and can swim. • Examples: bacteria, rickettsia, and blue-green algae. • Prokaryotic cell structure: • Types of bacteria: Eukaryotes – have a true (“eu”) nucleus (“karyon”) and organelles. • The nucleus and organelles are surrounded by membranes, and this allows their compounds and functions to be clearly compartmentalized. • The nucleus contains chromosomes, which is where genes and DNA are located.
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