HTH 100- Chapter 13 study guide
HTH 100- Chapter 13 study guide
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Faith Stackpole on Wednesday January 20, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to a course at James Madison University taught by a professor in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 15 views.
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Date Created: 01/20/16
Chapter 13 Worksheet Infectious Disease Be familiar with the specific (or adaptive/acquired) immune system, which creates antibodies to a specific pathogen and also a “memory” of that pathogen, which will produce a quicker response to future infections by that pathogen. White blood cells called lymphocytes B & T cells fight invades and mount quick response if same invader reappears Know the names of the white blood cells involved in the innate and adaptive/acquired immune systems – not the specific function of each – except that B cell lymphocytes secrete antibodies. T-cells: helper T, Killer T, Suppressor T, Memory T B-cells: secrete antibodies specialized proteins that recognize and neutralize specific microbes, resulting in immunity In what 2 ways can active immunity to a specific pathogen be achieved? Natural: exposure and artificial: vaccination In what 2 ways can passive immunity to a specific pathogen be achieved? Person receives antibodies from another person or animal Ex: Breast feeding What attitudes and beliefs have caused the “vaccine controversy”? Some parents have expressed concern over the safety of vaccinations, however the vast majority of public health professionals believe they are essential What are typical symptoms of an allergic reaction, and what causes them? Histamines cause inflammation response Asthma attacks Anaphylaxis What are the 4 autoimmune disorders we discussed in class? Disease caused by an overactive response against the body’s own cells Type one diabetes Rheumatoid arthritis Lupus Psoriasis What conditions can cause an individual to become immunucompromised? - Having an immune system that is impaired - An agent capable of transmitting a disease must be present - And the environment must be hospitable to the pathogen What are several controllable health behaviors that can help individuals support their immune systems and thus reduce their risk of contracting infections? -Stress -lack of sleep -Overuse of antibiotics -drug abuse -inadequate nutrition -poor personal hygiene What are some of the uncontrollable factors for infection that put individuals at increased risk of contracting disease? -Heredity -Undergoing surgical procedure -Age -environmental conditions -chronic disease -organism virulence and resistence What are some routes of direct transmission of pathogens? -skin -sexual contact What are some ways pathogens can be indirectly transmitted? -Infected food -infected body fluid Be able to explain how each of these factors relates to “the chain of infection”: Factors defintion “Break the Chain Susceptible host for a disease to -immunocompromised occur, the person or -unvaccinated host must be in a -elderly weakened condition Infectious agent/ Bacteria, virus, fungi, Prompt treatment of Pathogen etc. infected people decontamination Hospitable -Humans - Soil -Good heath and environment/ -Animals -water hygiene Reservoir -equipment -environment sanitation Portal of Exit -Saliva -Skin -proper attire -Urine -blood -hand washing -Vaginal -open -cover mouth sores Mode of transmission -Direct contact -Hand washing -Ingestion -Condom use -indirect contact -Proper food handling -Airborne -Airflow control Portal of Entry -Respiratory tract -A septic technique -Gastroin testinal -proper wound care tract -hand washing -Urinary Tract -Genital -Breaks in skin Which general category of pathogen causes malaria? -Transmitted through mosquitoes carrying a parasite Be familiar with the possible causes of antibiotic resistance AND some of the recommended practices to help to slow this process. -improper use of antibiotics and resulting growth of super bugs -overuse of antibiotics in food production - misuse and overuse of antibacterial soaps -vaccination -Use regular soaps -Safe in Kitchen -responsible with meds -Avoid foods with antibiotics Be able to recognize several conditions that are considered emerging or resurgent infectious diseases. - Ebola virus disease - E. Coli - West Nile Virus -Listeriosis - Bird Flu -Malaria
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