Module 1 Notes
Module 1 Notes PUR3000
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Date Created: 01/21/16
PUR3000 Module 1, Ch. 1 1/7/16 Objectives By the end of this module students will have completed the following objectives: Identify a good deﬁnition of public relations, Identify the differences among public relations, advertising, marketing, and journalism, Recognize public relations as a process (RACE process), Identify the skills needed for a public relations career and what salary to expect, Discuss contemporary public relations practice Reading - CH 1 • The Public Relations ﬁeld is most extensively developed in the US • PR ﬁrms are called on to track what consumers are saying about their clients online and to respond directly to any negative commentary • The Global Alliance estimates that 3 million people worldwide practice public relations as their main professional activity • China today is the worlds second largest economy, after the US Rex Harlow, stanford prof. and founder of the Public Relations Society of • America, compiled more than 500 deﬁnitions of PR • 1 of the ﬁrst textbooks in the ﬁeld - Effective PR - author Scott Cutlip and Allen center - “PR is the management function that identiﬁes, established, and maintains mutually beneﬁcial relationships between an organization and the various public on home its success or failure depends on” • Managing PR - by James Grunig and Todd Hunt • PR is a process - a series of actions, changes, or functions that bring about a result • PR interact directly with external sources of information, including the public, media, and government, and relays these inputs to management along with recommendations • PR becomes a vehicle through which management reaches the public with assorted messages • Publicity - information about an event, individual or group, or a product - appears as a news item or feature story in the mass media or online • Philip Kotler, NorthWestern - “PR is the 5th P of Marketing strategy - product, price, place, promotion PUR3000 Module 1, Ch. 1 1/7/16 • PR supports marketing: PR takes longer to cultivate, but when energized, it can help pull the company into the market • Marketing Communications - when PR is used to support directly an organizations marketing objectives Thomas Harris - “Marketing PR” - distinguishes from “corporate PR” that deﬁne • the corporations relationships with its non-customer publics • PRWeek survey found that PR ranked higher in effectiveness than advertising or marketing in 9 areas: brand reputation, corporate reputation, cultivating thought leaders, strategy development, launching a new product, building awareness, generating word of mouth, message development, overcoming crisis • In todays heightened environmental concern, accountability, and transparency - no organization exists solely for its own purposes; it must also serve society as a whole • Patrick Johnson - PR is devoted to the essential function of building and improving human relationships PR essential skills 1. Writing 2. Research ability - arguments must have factual support instead of generalities 3. Planing expertise 4. Problem solving ability 5. Business/economics competence 6. Expertise in social media 1. 3 most important skills: social networking, blogging, tweeting Dennis L. Wilcox - “PR writing and Media Techniques” - 8 ways in which PR activities contribute to fulﬁlling marketing objectives 1. developing new prospects for new markets, such as people who inquire after seeing or hearing a product release in the news media 2. providing third-party endorsements - via newspaper, magazines, radio, and television - through news releases about a company’s products/services, community involvement, inventions, and new plans 3. generating sales leads, usually through articles in the trade press about new products/services 4. paving the way for sales calls PUR3000 Module 1, Ch. 1 1/7/16 5. stretching the organizations advertising and promotional dollars through timely and supportive releases about its and its products 6. providing inexpensive sales literature, because articles about the company and its products can be reprinted as informative pieces for prospective customers 7. establishing the corporation as an authoritative source of information on a given product 8. helping to sell minor products that don’t have large advertising budgets An Integrated Approach An organizations objectives can be best accomplished through an integrated approach Integrated marketing communications, convergent communications, integrated communications Stanley Tennenbaum and Robert Lauterborn, “Integrated Marketing Communications” - the added value of a comprehensive plan that evaluates the strategic roles of a variety of communication disciplines (advertising, direct response, sales promo, PR) and combines these disciplines to provide clarity, consistency, and maximum communication impact IMC: 1. downsizing 2. tighter budgets - alternatives forms to advertising: building buzz via word of mouth, targeting inﬂuentials, web marketing, grassroots marketing, media relations and product publicity, event sponsorship 3. realizing the increasing clutter of advertising, the fragmentation of audiences among multiple media, and the general lack of credibility among consumers 1. AL and Laura Ries - PR creates the brand, advertising defends it 4. the marketing of products and services can be affected by public and social policy issues 1. David Corona - PR Journal - ﬁrst to advance the idea that marketings 6th P should be public policy Lecture Deﬁning PR: - Most people deﬁne public relations by visible techniques and practices: Rex Harlow compiled a list of 500 deﬁnitions PUR3000 Module 1, Ch. 1 1/7/16 - PR News (newsletter) - PR is the management function which evaluated public attitudes, identiﬁes the policies and procedures of an individual or an organization with the public interest, and plans and executed a program of action to earn public understanding and patience - Marketing Communication of public relations - marketing, PR, and advertising departments launching events/collaboration - PR job includes to safeguard icons/logos - Build relations - crisis management - “The management of communication between an organization and its publics.” - GRunIg & Hunt - “A communication function of management through which organizations adapt to, alter, or maintain their environment for the purpose of achieving organizational goals.” – Long & Hazelton - PR should foster open, two-way communication and mutual understanding, with the idea that an organization - not just the target audience - changes is attitudes and behaviors in the process - “Public Relations is a strategic communication process that builds mutually beneﬁcial relationships between organizations and their publics.” –PRSA 2012 deﬁnition. - Glen Cameron: PR is the strategic management of competition and conﬂict for the beneﬁt of one’s own organization - and when possible - also for the mutual beneﬁt of the organization and its various stakeholders or publics - PR is inﬂuencing behavior to achieve objectives through the effective management of relationships and communications - British Institute of PR - PR practice is the art and social science of analyzing trends, predicting their consequences, counseling organization leaders, and implementing planned PUR3000 Module 1, Ch. 1 1/7/16 programs of action which serve both the organization’s and the public’s interest - 1978 World Assembly of PR in Mexico City - media relations - getting a company/clients name in the news media — a component of PR (not the entire PR) - PR is the management function that builds and maintains relationships with the key groups of people - publics - upon which the success or failure of your business depends - Increasing exposures and staying on good terms with the people who can make or break your business - building and maintaining relationships with the key group of people who affect your business - PR: build, develop, identify, and maintain relationships between organizations and the publics that are very important to them - effective communication - internal campaigns - increasing employee moral, etc - crisis management - community relations - grassroots level - increase exposure among community PUR3000 Module 1, Ch. 1 1/7/16 - ﬁguring out what you are trying to accomplish as an organization, who your trying to motivate and connect with, and then you try and do that - managing communications Public Relations? - Communication management function between organizations and their publics. - Who say?What?ToWhom?Through What channels? With What effects? - Communication is a receiver-phenomenon - if receivers don’t understand sender information - there is no communication - PR need to focus on public - to understand information sending - Org: Proﬁt,Non-proﬁt,Government - Publics: Community members, stockholders (shareholders), consumers, employees, media, government agencies, activists, etc. A Growing Field • Organizations spend around $141 billion a year on public relations functions PUR3000 Module 1, Ch. 1 1/7/16 • Money magazine recently ranked“Public Relations Specialist” as the #20 best career in America • 22.61% growth rate; $84,567 average salary. Key words for Deﬁning PR • Management function - deliberate and planned, persuasive and advocacy. PR is most effective when it is a strategic and integral part of decision making by top management. PR involves counseling, problem solving, and the management of competition and conﬂict • Relationships • ultimate goal of PR is to build relationships • Research,strategic,evaluation • Communication – all types, especially two-way • Two-way communication - PR is not just disseminating information but also the art of listening and engaging in a conversation with various publics • Advocacy - try to be bridge between organization and public PUR3000 Module 1, Ch. 1 1/7/16 • Public interest– ethics. PR activity should be mutually beneﬁcial to the organization and the public; it is the alignment of the organizations self-interests with the publics concerns and interests • Continual process • Solve problems • Performance – bottom line. Effective PR is based on actual policies and performance. No amount of PR will generate goodwill and support if the organization has poor policies and is unresponsive to public concerns • Deliberate - PR activity is intentional. It is designed to inﬂuence, gain understanding, provide information, and obtain feedback from those affected by the activity • Planned - PR activity is organized. Solutions to problems are discovered and logistics are thought out, with the activity taking place over a period of time. It is systematic, requiring research and analysis. Contribution to the Bottom Line • Awareness and information Organizational motivation • • Issues anticipation • Opportunity identiﬁcation PUR3000 Module 1, Ch. 1 1/7/16 • Crisis management • Overcoming executive isolation Change agentry • • Social responsibility • Inﬂuencing public policy RACE: process of PR – First articulated by John Marston, The Nature of Public Relations • Research • start here to determine campaign • what is the problem or situation? • Action • program planning • what is going to be done? • Communication (execution) • PR campaigns • how will the public be told? PUR3000 Module 1, Ch. 1 1/7/16 • Evaluation • was the audience reached and what was the effect? 6 components in the PR chain Step 1: Research and analysis - consists of inputs that determine the nature and • extent of the public relations problem or opportunity • this may include feedback from the public, media reporting and editorial comment, analysis of trend data, other forms of research, personal experience, and government pressures and regulations • Step 2: Policy Formation- PR personal, as advisors to top management, make recommendation on policy and what actions should be taken by the organization • Step 3: Programming - Once a policy or action is agreed on, PR staff begin to plan a communications program that will further the organizations objectives. They will set objectives, deﬁne audiences, and decide on what strategies will be used on a speciﬁc timeline. Budget and stafﬁng are also major considerations. • Step 4: Communication - PR personnel execute the program through such vehicles as news releases, media advisories, newsletters, Internet and Web postings, special events, speeches, and community relations programs • Step 5: Feedback - The effect of these efforts is measured by feedback from the same components that made up the ﬁrst step. Did the media mention the key messages? Did people change their attitudes or opinions? Did sales go up? Did the organization preserve or enhance its reputation? Step 6: Assessment - The cycle is then repeated. The success of failure of the policy • or program is assessed as a way of determining whether additional efforts are needed, or whether new issues or opportunities must be addressed. Thus, it is a continuing loop process. Components of PR • Community relations - planned activity with a community to maintain an environment that beneﬁts both the organization and the community • Counseling - providing advice to management concerning policies, relationships, and communications • Crisis management • Development/fundraising - demonstrating the need for and encouraging the public to support and organization, primarily through ﬁnancial contributions PUR3000 Module 1, Ch. 1 1/7/16 • Employee/member communications (with HR) • understand the need, research the need, develop goals/objectives, decide what key audiences there are, and what key messages those target audiences need to hear, need to understand how to implement tactics, measure tactics • Financial or investor/shareholder relations - creating and maintaining investor conﬁdence and building good relationships with the ﬁnancial community • Government affairs - relating directly with legislatures and regulatory agencies on behalf of the organization. Lobbying can be part of government affairs program • Graphics – desk top publishing • Image consulting/image making/image restoration • Reputation management • Industry relations - relating with other ﬁrms in the industry of an organization and with trade associations • Integrated communications (IC) – without product focus • Integrated marketing communications (IMC) Internal/organizational communications • • International public relations • Issues management - identifying and addressing issues of public concern that affect the organization • Labor relations • Marketing communications - combination of activities designed to sell a product, service, or idea, including advertising, collateral materials, publicity, promotion, direct mail, trade shows, and special events • Media relations - working with journalists and bloggers in seeking publicity or responding to their interests in the organization • Member/Employee relationships - responding to concerns, informing, motivating and organizations employees or members Multicultural relations/workplace diversity - relating with individuals and groups in • various cultural groups. Bank of Americas outreach to the Hispanic community PUR3000 Module 1, Ch. 1 1/7/16 • Public affairs - developing effective involvement in public policy and helping an organization adapt to public expectations. The term is also used by government agencies to describe their public relations activities and by many corporations as an umbrella term to describe multiple public relations activities • Publicity/promotion - disseminating planned messages through selected media, including social media, to further the organizations interests. • Research - determining attitudes and behaviors of publics in order to plan public relations strategies. Such research can be used to generate mutual understanding or inﬂuence and persuade publics Risk communication/management • • Work with and support advertising and marketing • Special events - stimulating an interest in a person, product, or organization by means of a well-planned event; also activities designed to interact with publics and listen to them PR differences • Major difference among these ﬁelds is in scope, objectives, audiences and channels – Journalism – Advertising – Marketing Marketing vs. PR Both deal with an organizations external relationships and employ similar communication tools to reach the public. Both have the ultimate purpose of ensuring the organizations success and economic survival Marketing • makes $ for the organization • purpose is to sell goods/services through attractive packaging, competitive prices, retail and online promotions, and efﬁcient distribution systems • builds markets for goods & services PUR3000 Module 1, Ch. 1 1/7/16 • deals primarily with external audiences • consumers and customers • restricts PR to product publicity & promotion tends to rely exclusively on competitive solutions • • lower prices or better packaging • persuasive, customer based • getting products/services bought and sold • primarily deal with products positioning and sales PR saves $ for the organization • • Purpose is to build relationships & good will • builds relationships with a variety of publics that can enhance the organizations reputation and establish trust in its policies, products, and services • wide range of internal & external audiences • internal - employees PUR3000 Module 1, Ch. 1 1/7/16 • investors, community leaders, environmental groups, vendors, government ofﬁcials • the audience can affect the organizations success and proﬁtability through boycotts, legislation, and the generation of unfavorable publicity • includes many mgmt. & comm. functions accommodative through dialogue, both customers & non • PR in its ideal form - deals directly with upper management to shape and promote the organizations core values • builds good will between organization that has the products/services and the public that might want to buy them • deals with all departments of the organization to advance overall business goals and objectives • the organization must pay constant attention to its reputation and have policies that enhance trust and credibility among its multiple publics • perceive the problem as effectively feeling with opposition • realize pricing doesn't make any difference if a consumer grope is opposed to the product because they think it is unsafe Advertising vs. PR Both utilize mass media for dissemination of messages, but the format and context are very different between the two PUR3000 Module 1, Ch. 1 1/7/16 Material is prepared by public relations personnel and submitted to the news department for consideration —- Editors (gatekeepers) determine whether the material will be used or not Advertising • paid space/time • renting space in a mass medium • guaranteed placement selling goods & services - primarily directed at consumers • • external audiences • exclusively through mass media outlets • specialized communications function • used as a communication tool in PR • PR supports ad campaigns sustains a brand • PR • free placement PUR3000 Module 1, Ch. 1 1/7/16 • no guaranteed placement • generate public understanding • internal & external audiences - specialized audiences wide range channel • • mass media and interpersonal media (social) • many communication tools - brochures, slide presentations, special events, speeches, news releases, feature stories • create favorable environment - deals with policies and performance of entire organization as well as economic, social, political factors that can affect the organization • creates an environment in which an organization can thrive • builds a brand Journalism vs. PR They both interview people, gather and synthesize large amounts of information, write in a journalistic style, and are trained to produce good copy on deadline Journalism • Scope: main component is writing PUR3000 Module 1, Ch. 1 1/7/16 • not necessarily management • ascribes to objectivity - objectives: journalists gather and select information for the primary purpose of providing the public with news and information • mass audience - readers, listeners, or viewers of the medium for which they work • mass audiences are not well deﬁned - general public single channel of media employer - the medium that publishes/broadcasts their work • • Informs PR • Scope: many components: writing, special events, counseling • strategic thinking, problem solving • management skills required Objective: advocacy role, gather and sort information to inform the public, but also to • change peoples attitudes and behaviors in order to further an organizations goals and objectives • represents organizations Harold Burson - to be effective and credible, PR messages must be based on facts • PUR3000 Module 1, Ch. 1 1/7/16 • but we are still advocates for a point of view • communicate with highly segmented audiences into various demographic and psychological characteristics • variety of channels - can be a combo of mass media outlets, or direct mail, brochures, posters, magazines, newsletters, trade journals, special events, podcasts, blogs, websites, youtube • Informs to change attitudes and behaviors Other Terms for PR • For Fortune 500 companies: corporate communication (165), public relations (64), public affairs, communication, corporate relations, corporate public affairs • PR is an umbrella term on a worldwide basis • Sam Black - “the use of PR probably originated with press relations • corporate communications and external affairs corporate communications is used as a broader term than PR • • encompasses all communications of the company, including advertising, marketing communications, public affairs, community relations, and employee communications World wide public affairs and communications • • world wide communications and investor relations PUR3000 Module 1, Ch. 1 1/7/16 • “Public information” – social service agencies, universities and govt. agencies • marketing communications - nonproﬁt emphasizes product publicity and promotion • • “Community relations” – social service agencies • “Public affairs”– military • public affairs and corporate communications • public information and public affairs are most widely used terms by nonproﬁts, universities, and government agencies • Negative: ﬂack, ﬂak, spin, spindoctors • spin - ﬁrst appeared in New York Times about the activities of Ronal Reagans reelection campaign. In the beginning, spin was restricted to what was considered unethical and misleading activities and tactics of political campaign consultants. Today, the media widely use the term to describe any effort by an individual or organization to interpret an event or issue according to a particular view point • framing - PR personnel frame issues • ﬂack - originated 1939, in Variety PUR3000 Module 1, Ch. 1 1/7/16 • used as a synonym for press agent - in tribute to the skills of Gene Flack in publicizing motion pictures • used during WW1 to describe heavy ground ﬁre aimed at aircraft • internal communications specialists - work on intranet, online e-newsletter - communicate with internal publics • media relations - work with external audiences, work with media training, sustain those relationships with reporters • communications and public policy Number of PR specialists • 1950...........................19,000 • 1960………………………31,000 • 1970...........................76,000 • 1980…………………….126,000 1990.........................162,000 • 2000 ........................197,000 • Fields of PR • Levels: entry-level technician, supervisor, manager, director, executive • Entry-level salaries (2004): – UGA - $28,000 as compared to $26,000 median national average for all communication ﬁelds – PRWeek - $33,506 for less than two years experience Fields of PR • National average for all practitioners is $63,000 PUR3000 Module 1, Ch. 1 1/7/16 • More than 20 years of experience, average $103,000 for men, $81,000 for women • Top executives for Fortune 500 companies ranges from $269,000 to almost $500,000 • It all depends on region, title, type of organization, job classiﬁcation, technical or managerial • Salaries paid to women are consistently lower than those paid to men (about 28%) • Gap between the genders = $20,000 • 56% of women earn less than $45,000 • 27% of men earn less than $45,000 • Smallest gap in 21-26 entry level • Shortage of men in ﬁeld (70 percent are women in PR) • Gender imbalance in ﬁrms and departments • So, some ﬁrms are offering men more money for the same job PUR3000 Module 1, Ch. 1 1/7/16 Where do you want to work? • What are your personal and professional values? • What are your ﬁnancial requirements? • Where do you want to live? • What do you like to do? • What type of industry/ﬁeld? What type of organization? • • What type of public relations organization? Get involved • Courses: research, case strategies/tactics, writing, design, and campaigns. • Internships PR Concepts • • Public Relations Student Society of America (PRSSA) Subcategories of PR • Publicist - deals exclusively with placement of stories in the media Press agent - specialist, operating within the subcategory of PR that concentrates on • ﬁnding unusual new angles and planning events that attract media attention PUR3000 Module 1, Ch. 1 1/7/16
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