New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Module 2 Notes

by: Kayla Korbel

Module 2 Notes PUR3000

Kayla Korbel
GPA 3.8

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

Module 2
Principles of Public Relations
Class Notes
25 ?




Popular in Principles of Public Relations

Popular in Public Relations

This 27 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kayla Korbel on Thursday January 21, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PUR3000 at University of Florida taught by in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 114 views. For similar materials see Principles of Public Relations in Public Relations at University of Florida.


Reviews for Module 2 Notes


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 01/21/16
Chapter 2: Evolution of Public Relations 4 Models of PR • PressAgentry/Publicity (1840-1900)
 • Public Information (1900-1920s)
 • Two-WayAsymmetric (1920s-Present • Two-Way Symmetric (1960s-Present) Four Models of PR Four Models of PR Press Agentry Public Info. 2-Way Asymmetric 2-Way Symmetric Purpose propaganda & disseminate info scientific persuasion mutual publicty - true info was understanding emphasized Nature of one-way; truth disseminate info 2-way; imbalanced 2-way; balanced Communication not essential effects effect Communication source — Rec. Source — Rec. Source <——> Rec. Group <->Group Model 1 way communication Nature of Research little, counting little, readability,formative, evaluative formative, readership of attitudes evaluative of understanding Leading Figures P.T Barnum Ivy Lee Edward Bernays Bernays, educators, professionals Where Practiced sports, there, Govt., nonprofit, competitive, regulated product promos business business, agencies business, agencies % organizations 15 50 20 15 using today PR in the 19th Century • Age of the press agent • P.T. Barnum and pseudo-events • pseudo-events: created to get attention, not true events • Although not ethical (used bribery and exaggerations to garner attention), some aspects of public relations have roots in press agentry • full of manipulation period • Used publicity and promotion to populate the western frontier and build railroads Roots of Public Relations • Not used in present form until 1897 • Edward Bernays,1921,first person to call himself public relations counsel, also taught first course in public relations at New York University : Father of Modern Public Relations • Public relations has no identifying founder, though many credit Ivy Lee as first practitioner of public relations, or First PR counselor. Key PR Figures Phineas T. Barnum
 • • Ivy Ledbetter Lee
 • Edward L. Bernays - Father of modern PR 
 • Doris E. Fleischman - E. Bernays wife • Rex Harlow - Father of PR research Roots of PR • 1641 Harvard first fundraising brochure • 1758 Columbia University first press release • 1900PublicityBureau,first public relations agency opened • Creel Committee (WWI, Committee for Public Information) and Office of War Information (WWII) • Adaptation of PRSA Code of Ethics 1954 Roots of Public Relations First PR firm (PR agency): The Publicity Bureau Established in 1900 pr agency - being hired by other corporations – First client: Harvard University • helped establish image of prestigiousness, “best” education – 1906 - began work for nation’s railroads • First in-house PR: Westinghouse – Helped market/promote use of alternative current – Battle of the currents between Westinghouse (AC) and Edison (DC) Westinghouse won Major Developments that Influence PR • Global economy
 • Environment
 • Increased management role
 • Increased issues management • Increased crisis management • Proliferation of publics
 • Fragmented media • New media technology
 • More one-to-one communication
 • International relations
 • Higher priority on internal communication • Professionalism of the field Classic Campaigns • NASA–media accessibility,television cameras in new places, media tours, event coverage • Seat Belt Campaign – buckle up campaign, media, celebrity endorsements, buckling a 600- foot-wide safety belt around a Hollywood sign Ivory Soap Campaign • Edward Bernays 1923 
 • Consumer Research: no scent and pure 
 • Focused on its’purity and ability to float. 
 • Created the carving contest 
 • What are the reasons for success? 
   Ivory Soap: Why Successful? • Give what the consumers want! - Found out what consumers want, and provided what they want • Based on research • Create the new consumption of the soap through the carving event • The reason why targeting children? • Children took showers once a week at that time - If taking showers once a day, how much soap sales can be increased? • Using purity and soft concept! Today’s Public Relations • Increasing Importance of Intercultural communication • The principles of public relations in each country vary to some extent because of different cultural characteristics • For example, different public relations practice standards like “comparison with others is bad,” “concealing myself is needed at any time,” “a metaphor is better than a direct exhibition” have been applied in collectivism cultures such asAsia • In global markets like today,without understanding other cultures, public relations cannot be successful • Remember public relations is communication and relationship management function. Communication is a receiver phenomenon. Without understanding who our audiences are, public relations for any purpose will be failed. Abrief history of PR started in old world • • 49 BC - Julius Ceasar sends report of his epic achievements - in daily publication:Acta Diurnal • 1066 - The Bayeux Tapestry - worlds first infographic - depicts the Norman conquest of England • 17th - The Catholic Church - coined the term propaganda • 1800’s - the birth of PR • 1807 - Thomas Jefferson - first to use the term PR in an address to the US congress • 1889 - Westinghouse established the first PR department to fight Thomas Edison’s General Electric in the “Battle of the Currents” • alternating current won and became the standard • 1897 - The yearbook of Railway literature - first time PR was applied to managing communications between an organization and the public • corporate PR is born • 1900 - the publicity bureau - the first PR agency • 1900-19020’s - brought the great men of pr • 1906 - Ivy L Lee created the first official press release to help the Pennsylvania railroad manage an electric train wreck • The new york times prints its verbatim • The 1920’s transitioned from a culture of need to a culture of desire • 1924 - Basil Clark introduces the British code of ethics for PR in the UK • campaigned to have imported skimmed milk marked “unfit for babies” (on behalf of the makers of pasteurized milk) • fought legislation to stop harmful colourants in preserved foods for Heinz • 1929 - wall st. crashes — PR became a necessity • 1929 - Edward L Bernays encourages women to take up smoking with the Torches of freedom march • established beer as the beverage of moderation • 1938 - DeBeers - diamonds linked to romance • sales surge over 40% 1941 - after attack on pearl harbor - Coca cola persuaded the US war department that it is • crucial to the war effort - every man in uniform got a bottle of coca cola for 5 cents • this results in 5 billion bottles being consumed by the end of the war • 1948 - the institute of PR is established 1949 - PR and publicity by J.H Brebner is published • • is the first British book with “Public Relations” in its title • 1950’s - the global aspect of PR - pioneered by John Hill and Harold Burson • Burson opened his firm in 1953 by 2001 • burson-marsteller had 259 million in feed, and more than 2000 employees in 34 countries • 1960’s - the emergence of professional bodies across europe to represent PR consultancies • 1969 - the PRCAin the UK • 1982-ASSOREL in Italy • 1988 - syntec council of PR in France • 1992 -ADECEC in spain • today - ICCO - international communications consultancy organization - incorporated over 1500 firms from 28 countries in africa, australia, the americas, and europe • its members have reported that digital and social media represent the most growth area for global PR • 1900’s - brian solis predicts that the internet will change PR - coins the term PR 2.0 • 2008 - Deirdre breakenridge published PR 2.0 • describes how social media has cemented the new approach: how its put the public back into PR • the key to credibility is adopting and adapting to new ideas • this is the real challenge ahead Textbook: early PR - Herodotus wrote about Persian wars Alex the Great publicized his battlefield victories by sending reports to the Macedonian court the Rosetta Stone, 196 BC, was a publicity release touting an Egyptian pharaohs accomplishments Julius Caesar - first politician to publish a book, Commentaries - which he used to further his ambitions to become emperor of the Roman Empire Acta Diurna = daily doings — one of the worlds first newspapers The apostles used PR to spread christianity The middle ages Pope Urban II used symbolism, staged events, and propaganda to persuade thousands of followers to join the crusades 6 centuries later- the church was among the first to use the word propaganda Gutenberg developed the printing press (1450) which influenced the gathering and distribution of information for the next 500 years Colonial America colonization was a commercial proposition 1584 - sir walter raleigh was sending back glowing accounts to England of what was actually a swamp filled roanoke island 1620 - the virginia company distributed flyers and brochures throughout Europe, offering 50 acres of free land to anyone willing to migrate 1641 - harvard college published a fund raising brochure and sent representative to england to raise funds 1758 - Columbia had its first news release PR has played an active role in american independence sam adams - the father of press agentry - founder of sons of liberty - organized rallies and demonstrations in 1760’s to protest the stamp act - he is credited with organizing the boston tea party - labeled the boston massacre tom pains - common sense - an early example of political communication to a national audience federalists papares - james madison, alex hamilton, john jay 1800’s: the golden age of press agentry the 1800’s was a time of growth and expansion in the US press agent - a person whose work it to get publicity for an individual, orgnaization, etc this period was also the age of “hype” = shrewd use of the media or other devices to promote an individual, a cause, or even a product or service Legacy of PT Barnum the individual who best represents the hype and press agentry of the 19th century is Phineas T Barnum, the great american showman he was the master of what daniel boorstin calls pseudo event - a planned happening that occurs primarily for the purpose of being reported barnum used flowery language, exaggeration, controversy, massive advertising, and publicity to promote his various attractions in an age when the public was hungry for any form of entertainment 1835 - barnum first gained fame as the exhibitor of Joice Heth - and african american who was billed as george Washington's nursemaid, which would have made her 161 years old barnum and levi lyman encouraged public debate about her background and age because it generated not only media coverage but the sale of tickers as the public came to see for themselves 1840 - a barnum exhibit that generated controversy - Fejee Mermaid thanks to barnum, tom thumb became one of americas first media celebrities - midget that was exceptional at signing, dancing, and performing comedy monologues barnum knew the value of 3rd party endorsement one of americas first pop icons - jenny lind A multicultural world JAR Pimlott - PR is not a peculiarly american phenomenon, but it has nowhere flourished as in the US Germany: railroads and other large business began publicity as far back as the 19th century Alfred Krupp - founder of Krupp Company, the premier industrial firm in germany, and eventually the base of the nazi war power - wrote in 1866 “we think it is time for authoritative reports concerning factory matters, in accordance with the facts should be propagated on a regular basis through newspaper reports which serve an enlightened public Great Britain: the Marconi company, a world lear in wireless telegraphy - established a department in 1910 to distribute news releases about its achievements and operations 1911 - the first government PR campaign was launched by the Insurance Commission to explain the benefits of the National InsuranceAct The air ministry appointed the first government press officer in 1919, and a year layer the ministry of health selected Basil Clark, a former Reuters correspondent, as director of information 1922 - the government launched the British Broadcasting Service (BBC) as a way to communicate british values and view points to its colonies and other nations 1924 - PR counseling for business was introduced when Basil Clark started a film in london his first lucent was a dairy group that wanted to promote milk pasteurization Australia: PR largely consisted of publicity efforts until after WWII When US general Douglas MacArthur arrived after his escape for Corregidor in 1942, he introduced the term PR and demonstrated numerous ways of promoting his image and the war effort the industry grew steadily 1960 - the PR institute of australia (PRIA) was formed Eric white - “virtually created PR industry” in australia as early as 1960 White oversaw extensions of his firm to six pacific rim countries India: modern PR probably began around WWI - when the government set up publicity boards throughout the country to mobilize support for the war according to C.V Narasimha Reddi - PR played an active role in indian independence 1912 - TATA- one of india’s largest corporations, began programs in community relations and employee communications The Philippines: the PR industry in the phillipines was transplanted from the west in 1940s the country is considered the pacific birthplace of PR Business WritersAssociation of the Philippines was organized - after WWI - to promote the idea of corporate social responsibility Pete Teodoro - early filipino pioneer - PR director of Elizalde and Company, a pain manufacture, and he is credited with undertaking the first organized PR campaign to generate goodwill and business from local contractors and architects 1966 - San Miguel Corporation, one of the countries largest companies and known worldwide for its beer, established the first PR department Spain: the growth of PR in spain started in the 1950’s and paralleled political, economical, and media developments in spain an ad agency, DanisAdvertising of Barcelona, launched PR campaign in 1955 to build community goodwill for a corporate client of its products one of the directors, Joaquin Maestre started his own PR consultancies “marked the beginning of a dynamic consumer market for PR services The Russian Federation: 1991 - the collapse of the soviet union, ushered in a free market economy and democratic reforms that caused rapid growth of PR field in government and private business global companies began selling products and services in the new russia with the assistance of western style advertising, PR, and promotion russian companies began to understand the importance of publicizing their products and services before that time PR was conducted by government mid 1990’s - a russian association of PR professionals was organized to promote standards and provide continuing education Thailand: PR dates back to 1950’s Esko Pasaljami from finland is credited with starting the first PR firm in thailand “Presko” became the largest PR firm in the nation and set standards for other firms to follow an early Presko campaign - Colgate-Palmolive after its toothpaste was false accused of containing pork fat UnitedArab Emirates: by mid 1980’s majority of government departments and other major institutions had created PR department International PR firms arrived mid 1980’s to service the operations in the middle east Promoting the westward movement american railroads used extensive PR and press agentry to attract settlers and expand operations Andy Piasecki described - the expansion of railroads was dependent on publicity and promotion the railroad promoted lectures about migrating to theAmerican west Politics and Social movements take the stage early 1800’s saw a development of PR tactics on the political and activist front Amos Kendall became an intimate member of presidentAndrew Jacksons “kitchen cabinet” and probably was the first presidential press secretary article reprints are still a standard tactic in todays modern practice 1848 - the organizers of the first women rights convention in Seneca Falls, NY used a variety of PR tactics to promote the meeting and their cause this included news releases, brochures, legislative petitions, special events, speaking tours, and concepts of issues management one of the most influential publicity venture for the abolition movement was in 1852 - publication of harriet beecher stowes Uncle Toms Cabin womens christian temperance movement used PR during 1870’s to ban alcohol and promote suffrage movement — some of its techniques - distributing information kits and fact sheets to the press, establishing coffee houses, holding demonstrations in front of liquor stores, going door to door to persuade voters the anti-saloon league of america used PR - pamphlets, posters, lectures, and lobbying - ultimately led to the 1920 enactment of the EighteenthAmendment: banning the selling and consumption of alcoholic products in the US in the latter half of the 19th century - activists focused on racial discrimination Ida B wells - born a slave in 1862 was 22 when she refused to move when a railroad conductor ordered her to give up her seat —70 years before Rosa Parks founder of national association of colored people (NAACP) environmental movement during the last half of the 19th century 1860 -john muir began quest to protect wilderness areas and to establish national parks used PR - wrote books, articles, panplets, telegrams 1889- he worked with Century Magazine to promote the campaign requesting congressional support to create Yosemite national park Early Corporate initiatives John Wannamaker of Philedalphia - one of the first major retailers to use the tactics of PR to attract customers 1870’s - he published a magazine that was given free to customers Macy’s - introduced its first christmas window in 1870 its greatest PR coup was the creation of the thanksgiving day parade - 1924 Westinghouse Corporation - established first in house publicity department — to promote the concept of alternating currentAC verses Tom Edision direct current DC george westinghouse eventually won andAC became the standard in the US 1897 - the term PR was first used in a company listing by the association of american railroads 1900’s to 1950’s: the age of pioneers 20th century - PR shifted from hype and press agentry to facts and information 2 factors invovled in this shift - - the press agent model didn't really fit the operations and objectives of large corporations - the new field of PR attracted journalists who ar more comfortable with objectivity and the dissemination of info Ivy Lee: the first PR counsel the leading pioneer in this approach was ivy ledbetter lee 1905- lee opened his PR firm, parker and lee — he issued a declaration of principles that signaled a new model of PR practice: public information lees emphasis was on dissemination of truthful, accurate information rather than distortions, hype, and exaggerations one of lees first clients - pensylvania railroad - where he was retained as “publicity counselor” to handle media relations his first task was to convince management that the policy of operating in secret and refusing to talk with the press - typical of large corporations at this time - was a poor strategy for fostering goodwill and public understanding he issues the first press release of the modern age by 1912 lee had become the executive assistant to the president of Pensylvanias railroad - which scott cutlip calls the first known instance of PR person being placed at the management level 1913-14 - railroad freight hike campaign — the pensylvania railroad needed a 5% railroad freight rate hike to remain in business but there was public opposition and the a skeptical interstate commerce commission (ICC) - lee believed the public could be persuaded to accept higher rates if they were given the facts and made aware of the situation Burton st. john III recounts how lee conducted his campaign — lee distributed the railroads testimony to the press, employees, college presidents, and other opinion leaders leaflets and builtins, a speakers bureau, and reprints of speeches people supported the campaign and the ICC granted 5% rate hike lee is best known for his work with the Rockefeller family 1914 - john d rockefeller hired lee in the wake of a strike breaking activities - known as ludlow massacre - at the rockefellers colorado fuel and iron company plant lee found that labor leaders were talking to the media, but executives were tight lipped and inaccessible lee proposed a series of informational bulletins that would be distributed to opinion leaders in colorado and the nation lee recognized at an early time the value of directly reaching opinion leaders who were highly influential in shaping public discussion and opinion lee is remembered for his 4 important contributions to PR: 1. advancing the concept that business and industry should align themselves with the public interest 2. dealing with top executives and carrying out no program without the active support of management 3. maintaining open communication with the news media 4. emphasizing the necessity of humanizing business and bringing its PR down to the community level of employees, customers, and neighbors Edward L Bernays: father of modern PR lees PR model is still in use today, but a new approach to the practice of PR - introduced in 1920s - emphasized the concepts of scientific persuasion edward bernays - a leading proponent of this new approach became father of modern PR by the time of his death in 1995, age 103 he believed that PR should emphasize the application of social science research and behavioral psychology to formulate campaigns and messages lee public information model emphasized the accurate distribution of news — bernays model was on of advocacy and scientific persuasion it included listening to the audience — the purpose of feedback was to formulate a more persuasive message Emeritus james grunig labeled this the 2 way asymmetric model bernays - spokesperson of the “new” PR through book Crystallizing Public Opinion - outlined the scope, functions, methods, techniques, and social responsibilities of PR counsel - a term to become the core of PR bernays campaigns: ivory soap - proctor and gamble torches of liberty - during roaring 20s, american tobacco company to encourage women to smoke, countering the social taboo of public smoking lights golden jubilee - 50th anniversary of thomas Edisons electric lightbulb - 1929 worldwide lights golden jubilee- the world shuts off their power for a minute in remembrance of edison Larry Tye - “the father of spin: edward l bernays and the birth of PR” bernays would first think about the big idea bernays advocated the licensing of PR counselors he was the “first and doubtless the leading ideologist of PR” his wife - doris fleishman: equal partner in bernays work Other pioneers in the field george creel: used lees public info model - asked by pres. Wilson to organize a massive PR effort to unit the nation and to influence world opinion during WWI - James O Mock and Cedric Larson, “words that won the war”: “mr creel assembled a group of brilliant and talented journalists, scholars, press agents, editors, artist, and other manipulators of the symbols of public opinion in america had ever seen united for one single purpose” creel committee persuaded newspapers and magazines to contribute volumes of news and advertising space to encourage americans to save food and invest in liberty bonds which were purchased by more than 10 million people awakened a public awareness of the power of mediated information in shaping public opinion and behavior arthur w. page: vice pres. of american telephone and telegraph (AT&T) company in 1927 - credited with establishing the concepts that PR should have an active voice in higher management believed that a company’s performance, not press agency, comprises its basis for public approval credited with laying the foundation for the field of corporate PR 1960 - dies,AT&T associates establish a society of senior communication executives in his name - the aurthur page society pages 6 principles of PR management - 1. tell the truth 2. action speaks louder than words 3. always listen to the consumer 4. anticipate PR and eliminate practices that cause conflict 5. PR is a management and policy making function that impacts the entire company 6. keep a sense of humor, exercise judgement, and keep a cool head in times of crisis benjamin sonnenberg: suggested that Texaco sponsor performances of the metropolitan opera on national radio - sponsorship began in 1940 and enhances Texaco’s reputation as a patron of the arts isador barmash - described sonnenberg as “ the most influential publicist of the mid- twentieth century “i build large pedestals for small people” - secret to his success rex harlow: considered to be the “father of PR research” first full time PR educator founded american council on PR - which later became the PR society of america (PRSA) 1952 - founded social science reporter - one of the first newsletters in the field leone baxter: her and her partner clem white are credited with founding the first political campaign management firm in the US the firm handled several california governors and US senate campaigns, adivsed general dwight d esinehower when he ran for pres. in 1952, and counseled nixon on the famous “checkers” speech that saved his career as vice president warren cowan - “portfolio” magazine called him the “cosnummate hollywood PR man” his firm rogers and cowan was one of the first firms to serve the movie industry in the 1930’s he is credited with mentoring todays leading hollywood publicists 1944 - he invented the modern oscar campaign by leaking a story about an actors academy award chances “if we don’t have anything to publicize, lets create it” 2008 - dies at age 87 eleanor lambert - the “grande dame” of fashion PR credited with putting american designers on the map when europeans dominated the industry she compiled “best dressed” list for 62 years elmer davis: pres. Roosevelt appointed davis head of the office of war information (OWI) during WWII using the creel comment as a model, davis mounted an larger PR effort to promote the sale of war bonds, obtain press support for wartime rationing, encourage the planting of victory gardens, and spur higher productivity among american workers to win the war the voice of america (VOA) was established to carry news of war to all parts of the world, and the movie industry made a number of feature films in support of the war the OWI was the forerunner of the US information industry (USIA) which was established in 1953 its operations are now part of the US state departments public diplomacy efforts moss kendrix: “what the public thinks coutns” was his mantra founded his own PR firm in 1944 credited with being the first african american to acquire a major corporate account - the coca cola company the museum of PR notes “ he educated his corporate clients about the buying power of the african american consumer, and helped to make america realize that african americans were more complex than the derogatory images depicted in the advertising of the past Major Contributions by industrialists, presidents henry ford: americas first major industrialist among the first to use 2 basic PR concepts 1. positioning - credit and publicity alway go to those who do something first 2. being accessible to the press joeseph epstein,Ambition, “he may have been an even greater publicist than mechanic” 1900 - ford obtained coverage of prototype Model T by demonstrating it to a reporter form the detroit tribune 1903 - Ford achieved widespread publicity by racing his cars - a practice still used today by automakers he became the hero of working class by being the first automaker to double his workers wages to $5 per day “business is service, not a bonanza” - now called corporate social responsibility (CSR) samuel insull - the chicago edison company broke new ground in PR techniques under its pres. Samuel insull, well war of the need for public utility to maintain relationships, created a monthly customer magazine, issued a stream of news releases, and used films for PR purposes 1912 - he started “bill stuffer” by inserting company information into customers bills - a technique used by many utilities today he expanded the market for electricity by promoting electrical appliances, with the theme that they would liberate women from household drudgery Teddy roosevelt - pres. 1901-09, master a promoting and publicizing his pet projects first pres. to make extensive use of news conferences and press interviews to drum up public support when Congress was resistant ardent conservationist and knew the publicity value of the presidential tour took a group of reporters and photographers to see Yosemite park to generate favorable press and public support for the creation of additional national parks set aside 150 million acres for public recreational use - became the “father” of the american conservative movement has a stuffed animal named after him - teddy bear in recognition of his humane gesture his supporters organized nationwide birthday balls in 1934 to celebrate his birthday and to raise funds for infantile paralysis research — lead to the creation of March of Dimes - campaign led by carl boyar and associated 1950 to 2000: PR comes of age the economy after WWII produced rapid growth of PR as it became an indispensable part of america’s economic, political, and social development TV emerged in early 1950’s as a national medium factors for the expansion of PR: - the growth economy - increases in urban and suburban populations - growth of more impersonalized society, represented by big business, big labor, and big government - scientific and technological advances, including automation and computerization - the communications revolution in terms of mass media - bottom-line financials considerations often replacing the more personalized decision making of a previous, more genteel society many citizens felt alienated by such rapid changes — many began working on pressure groups focused on environmentalism, working conditions, and civil rights public opinion became increasingly powerful in opposing or effecting change typical for the PR programs of large corporations mid-century was that of theAluminum Company ofAmerica (ALCOA) — heading the operation - vice pres. for PR and advertising, who was aided by an assistant PR director and advertising manager departments included community relations, product publicity, motion pictures and exhibits, employee publications, the news bureau, and speech writing Alcoa news - for all employees 1960s - Vietnam war protests, civil rights movement, the environmental movement, interests in women's rights, etc antibusiness sentiment was high — the idea of issues management was added to PR manager this was the first expression of the idea that PR should be more than persuading people that corporate policy was correct grunig - 2 way symmetrical communication: balance between organization and its publics, dialogue with publics - the organization and the public can influence each other 1970’s - era of reform in the stock market and investor relations texas gulf sulfur case changed investor relations forever by establishing the idea that a company must immediately disclose any information that may affect the value of its stock 1980’s - the concept that PR is a management function was in full bloom strategic became a buzzword the concept of management by objective (MBO) was heavily endorsed by PR practitioners as they sought to prove to higher management that PR does contribute to the bottom line derina holtzhausen - “PR management highlights organizational effectiveness, the strategic management of the function through strategic identification of publics, and issue management to prevent crisis reputation or perception management was the buzzword of the 90s burson marsteller - one of the largest PR firms - decided that its business was not PR but rather “perception management” but there was debate is reputations can be managed, because reputations are the cumulative effect of numerous actions and activities PR people work to maintain credibility, to build solid internal and external relationships, and to manage issues inherent in this was the idea that PR personnel should use research to do: 1. environnemental monitering 2. PR audits 3. communication audits 4. social audits by doing these it would be possible to enhance corporate social responsibility (CSR) The influx of women into the field the most dramatic change, in terms of personnel, was between 1950-2000 with the transformation of PR from male dominated to one which females make up 70% 1979 - women made up 41% of the PR field 1983 - 50.1% of the PR workforce 75% of the membership in the international association of business communicators (IABC) are now women today, women make up 51% of professional workers in the US in all fields today, women earn more degree than men in all fields except physical sciences, math, engineering, and business females comprise 70-75% of the majors some have concluded that male dominated corporate structures impose a “glass ceiling” on the advancement of women into higher level management Todays practice and trends by 2000 people began to consider PR as relationship management - the idea being that PR practitioners are in the business of building and fostering relationships with an organizations various publics relationship marketing - an effort to form a solid, ongoing relationship with the purchaser of a product or service relationship management builds on grunigs idea of 2 way symmetrical communication, but goes a step further by recognizing that an organizations publics are “active, interactive, and equal participants of an ongoing communication process” (stephen bruning) “typically organizations are fairly effective at fulfilling content communication needs, but fall short of fulfilling key public member rational communication needs an extension of relationship management - dialogic (dialogue) model of PR that has emerged sing 2000 — Michael Kent and Maureen Taylor: “a theoretical shift, from PR reflecting an emphasis on managing communications, to an emphasis on communication as a tool of negotiating relationships, has been taking place for some time” good dialogic communications requires skills: listening, empathy, being able to contextualize issues within local, national, and international frameworks, ….(p58) dialogue places less emphasis on mass media distribution of messages and more on interpersonal channels www sites are good vehicles for dialogue if they are interactive engagement - another way of expressing the concept of dialogue between an organization and its publics today: marketing communications - scientific persuasion, 2 way asymmetric communication issues management and relationship building: 2 way symmetric and dialogue models glen cameron - PR should be more assertive, and is best defined as the strategic management of competition and conflict in the best interests of the organization and when possible also in the interest of key publics Current developments multicultural world: requires sensitivity and knowledge of multiple audiences people are getting older - majority fred cook - the seismic shift to globalization and multiculturalism will transform communication. It will not be enough to fares emerging cultures by creating separate practices to focus on individual ethnic group. In the coming decades, the current ethnocentric approach to PR will be replaced by more holistic perspective by 2020 - china and india will be 40% of the growth recruitment of minorities: a continuing challenge is the recruitment of a diversified workforce in PR the fastest growing, and now largest groups is hispanics the public demand for transparency: Vocus: “an organizations every action is subject to public scrutiny. Martin Sorell: “it is a more transparent world, everything a company does will be dissected and discussed the institute of PR (IPR) in the UK: “the role of PR has changed - instead of being used as a way to influence and secure media coverage, organizations are using PR to communicate with their stakeholders as society demands more transparency expanded role for PR: tom gable: “our challenge and opportunity will be in the areas of our positioning, branding, reputation management, and building relationships for the long term with multiple constituencies corporate social responsibility (CSR): james murphy: “ PR staffs are in the forefront of building trusts and credibility - and coordinating corporate social responsibility efforts” increased emphasis on measurement: return on investment (ROI) 2 other important dimensions of measurement are: - measuring outcomes: the long term effectiveness of PR program - measuring outputs: how well a program was executed and how effective its tactics were managing the 24/7 news cycle: PR personnel must constantly monitor what is being reported or discussed from traditional media to social media the demand for instant response and the distribution of more information leave little to no time for reasoned responses or to ensure accuracy a major challenge today is how to cope with the cascade of info and how to give it shape and purpose so that it is relevant to multiple audiences continued growth of digital media: mass media is rapidly being atomized - moving from mainstream to multi-stream - fred cook the greatest area of growth today will be the use of the internet and various forms of social media outsourcing to PR firms: ian mitroff, gerald swerling, jennifer floto - the use of agenicies is now the norm in american business across al revenue categories and industries - 85% of respondents work with outside PR firms the need for lifelong professional development: PR personnel will need to continually update their knowledge base to stay current with new developments deirdre breakenrige - “social media is forcing reform of the PR industry and now requires PR and communication professionals to act as research librarians, sociologists, cultural anthropologists, and content mangers Summary - the settlement of the West was due to promotion by land developers and american railroads - the first presidential press secretary dates back to the administration ofAndrew Jackson in 1820’s - the Wannamaker department store in Philedalphia and Macy’s in NY were the first to use PR techniques to a attract customers in 1870’s - US adoptedAC in 1890s, partly as result of successful PR campaign by george westinghouse - ivv lee and bernays are the 2 outstanding pioneers - arthur w page - first to establish PR as an integral part of high level corporation management - the field of PR expanded after WWI as a result of changes inAmerican society • urbanization, mass media, expansion of business - PR matures as a management function at the highest levels of the organization - PR today places emphasis on listening, engagement, and dialogue w/ public - ongoing trends: effort to have a more diverse workforce, practice on a global scale, and the revolutionary shift from traditional mass media to social media - CSR is mainstream


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

25 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."

Kyle Maynard Purdue

"When you're taking detailed notes and trying to help everyone else out in the class, it really helps you learn and understand the I made $280 on my first study guide!"

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"

Parker Thompson 500 Startups

"It's a great way for students to improve their educational experience and it seemed like a product that everybody wants, so all the people participating are winning."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.