Psychology Chapter 1 What is Psychology Part 1
Psychology Chapter 1 What is Psychology Part 1 PSY1010
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This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Shelby Bussard on Thursday January 21, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY1010 at Wright State University taught by Carmen Culotta in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 106 views. For similar materials see Intro to Psychology in Science at Wright State University.
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Date Created: 01/21/16
Chapter 1 What is Psychology? Psychology o the scientific study of behavior and mental processes o Behavior Actions Feelings Biological states (sleeping) Mental processes Problem solving Intelligence Memory Scientific method A systematic process used to test ideas about behaviors Theory An explanation of why and how a behavior occurs Pseudopsychology Sounds persuasive but is not backed by research Critical thinking Involves analyzing and evaluating information and applying it to other situations Main goals in psychology To describe behavior (involves observing events and describing them) To predict behavior (can be made about or anticipate what events may occur) To explain behavior (explain or understand the causes of behavior; scientists explain behaviors in forms of theories) To control or change behavior (what is causing the behavior and how can it be changed?) Psychological research Test ideas about behavior Scientific method A set of rules for gathering and analyzing information that enables you to test an idea or hypothesis Scientific method outline Define and describe the issue to be studied Make a prediction Form a hypothesis Must be phrased in a measureable way (college students who buy pitchers of beer drink more than students who buy bottles of beer) An educated guess Choose an appropriate research strategy Choose a group of people Choose a research method Conduct the study to test your hypothesis Run the study and collect data Analyze the data to support or reject your hypothesis Reuse or create new hypothesis Replicate successful tests for confidence Intro to Psych (in class notes) Why should you study psych? o Make a person more aware of how people work? o Makes you aware of you o Successful in careers o Help you relate to others easily Research: producer and consumers o Students become consumers o They do not product research o Students rely on research to understand media coverage of scientific findings o Evaluate public policies based on research o informs your personal and vocational decisions Applied psychology o Social workers, therapists, forensic psychologists, teachers o to help people with their own behaviors Facilitated communication o a process by which a person referred to as a facilitator supports the hand and arm of an audible impaired person while using a keyboard o Problem: facilitator moves individual's hand o facilitator does not realize that they are making up information Why psychology research matters? o sex ed vs abstinence only programs One does not provide safe sex information, the other might promote sex Natalie Portman Studied psychology published in journals Subdisciplines of psychology Cognitive psychology study of mental processes Developmental psychology study of physical, cognitive, social, and emotional changes over the lifespan Behavioral psychology study of the links among brain, mind, and behavior Biological psychology study of connections between bodily systems and chemicals, and their relationship to behavior and thought Personality psychology study of what makes people unique and the consistencies in people’s behavior across time and situations Social psychology study of how the real or imagined presence of others influences thought, feeling, and behavior Clinical psychology study of the treatment of mental, emotional, and behavioral disorders and ways to promote psychological health Counseling psychology similar to clinical psychology but may work less severe psychological disorders Predictive hypothesis an educated guess about the relationships between variables used to address description and prediction made when the researcher measures the variable of interest but does not manipulate or control the variables in the study Conclusions can only state what was observed Causal hypothesis an educated guess about how one variable will influence another only can be made when a researcher controls a variable in a study Decide on a research strategy after declaring a hypothesis Predictive hypothesis naturalistic observations, case studies, surveys, and correlational research used when a researcher cannot control or manipulate a variable Population of interest when a researcher includes every person they are interested in studying Sample a portion of the population of interest Representative sample a sample which represents a whole population Random sampling ensures a representative sample every member of a population has an equal chance of being selected to participate in the study This avoids sampling bias Samples of convenience Groups of people who are easily accessible to the researcher Naturalistic Observations Research studies that are conducted in the environment in which the behavior typically occurs A researcher in this study is an observer of behavior who then describes or mkes predictions about behavior based on what he or she has observed Used for description and prediction Case study an indepth observation of one participant (person, animal, or setting/business) Provides indepth information about unique situations or unusual conditions does not apply to a general population because of it’s rarity Generalizability how well a researcher's findings apply to other individuals and situations findings in case study are limited to the participant being studied Survey a research method that asks a large group of people about attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors data is used to make predictions and test predictive hypothesis who and how a question is asked is a critical element in distinguishing good survey research from biased research Correlation the relationship between two or more variables (gender and ager, TV and violence) researcher does not control variables but measures them to find a relationship relationship between calorie intake and weight gain is a correlation Correlation coefficient strength of a correlation a statistic that shows us how strong the relationship between two factors Ranges from 1.00 and +1.00 Perfect correlation A true 1.00 or +1.00 The value of one variable always exactly predicts the value of another zero correlation no linear relationship between two variables Positive Correlation a relationship in which increased in one variable correspond to increase in another variable variables change in the same direction as stress levels increase, so does blood pressure negative correlation a relationship in which one variable increases and another decreases “inverse relationship” video games and school competence; the more video games = less competence in school Correlation studies allow researchers to make predictions about behavior but not cause and effect conclusions Experiments a research method that is used to test causal hypothesis Two features categorize experiments #1 the study variables in the study are controlled or manipulated #2 Participants are randomly assigned to the conditions of the study The point of an experiment is to manipulate one variable and see what effect this manipulation has on the other variable Independent variable the variable in an experiment that is manipulated The cause of the experiment; what is being tested Dependent variable the variable in an experiment that measures any effect of the manipulation experimental group the group of participants who receive the manipulation that is being tested Control group the group of participants who do not receive the manipulation that is being tested baseline comparison for the experimental group sometimes receives a placebo Placebo effect a measureable change in participants behavior due to the expectation or belief that a treatment will have certain effects double blind study an experiment in which neither the experimenters nor the participants know which group participants have been assigned confounding variables any factor other than the independent variable that affects the dependent measure age might affect one’s memory or how one handles sleep deprivation controlled by trying to hold them at a constant value so the outcomes of the study cannot be attributed to them when confounding variables are controlled, we find the difference between our groups of dependent variables, and have found a cause and effect random assignment a method of assigning participants in which they have an equal chance of being placed in any group or condition of this study Quasiexperiment a research study that is not a true experiment because participants are not randomly assigned to the different conditions Advantages of experiments we approach two goals of psychology (explaining and changing behavior) with experiments enables us to determine cause and effect draw closer conclusions Disadvantages of experiments do not address the first two goals (describing and predicting) conducted in lab settings which may create a false environment employing the scientific method; it is not possible for ethical or practical reasons Institutional review board a committee that reviews research proposals to ensure that ethical standards have been met Informed consent the ethical principle that research participants are told about various aspects of the study, including any risks, before they agree. Participant agreement include general purpose of study services available to group methods of experimentation aspects that might influence a person’s willingness compensation risks or side effects confidentiality the ethical principle that researchers do not reveal which data were collected from which participant personal information cannot be shared debriefing the ethical principle that participants be fully informed by the nature of the study after participating in an experiment involving deception Wilhelm Wundt established first lab in 1879 in Germany structuralism an early psychological perspective concerned with identifying the basic elements of experience introspection observing one’s own thoughts, fears, or sensations Margaret Washburn first woman to be awarded a doctorate in psychology Edward Tichener student of Wundt’s Biological perspective an approach about physical causes behavior comparing genetic and nervous system functions to behavior neuroscience a field of science that investigates the relationships between the nervous system and behavior/mental processes William James did not share Wundt’s focus on breaking down mental events proposed a focus on wholeness of an event and the impact of the environment on behavior emphasized how a mental process operates as opposed to the structure of a mental process evolution refers to the development of species Natural selection only organisms best suited to their environment tend to survive and reproduce functionalism an early psychological perspective concerned with how behavior helps people adapt to their environment according to James, if human behavior is naturally selected, it is important for psychologists to understand the function, or survival value, of a behavior evolutionary perspective an approach that focuses on how evolution and natural selection influence behavior proposes that natural selection is the process at work; behaviors that develop over time affect chances of survival Sigmund Freud focused on neurology and disorders of the nervous system Theorized that encouraging patients to say whatever comes to mind allowed them to recall forgotten memories, known as free association (element of psychoanalysis) Psychoanalytic theory Sigmund Freud’s view that emphasized the influence of unconscious desires and behaviors Suggests behavior is a result of an internal problem Psychodynamic perspective an approach that focuses on internal unconscious mental processes, motives, and desires that may explain behavior Behaviorism a psychological perspective that emphasize the study of observable responses and behavior John B. Watson Supported behaviorism Ivan Pavlov Studied digestion in dogs found that dogs could be conditioned to salivate before they were given food at the ring of a bell Stimulus any object or event that is perceived by our senses response an organism's reaction to a stimulus Watson had conditioned a child to fear a white rat because a loud noise the followed the image Behavioral perspective an approach that focuses on external, environmental influences on behavior Sociocultural Perspective an approach that focuses on societal and cultural factors that may influence behavior Society and culture influences our actions one cannot fully understand or explain a person's behavior without understanding their culture, gender identity, ethnic identity, or other factors Humanism a psychological perspective that emphasizes the personal growth and potential of humans prehistoric views medicine men and women treated mental problems by driving out demons might use ‘trephination’ drilling a small hole in a person’s skull to release demons and spirits supernatural explanations ancient views moved toward natural and physiological explanations ancient Chinese made connections between organs and emotions heart houses the mind; liver housed soul; spleen housed ideas medieval to early modern views middle ages supernatural causes Asylums = renaissance bedlam asylum with terrible conditions and worked toward keeping patients away from society did not treat people well movements to be more moral to patients / change their behavior modern views Emil Kraepiin classified different disorders Sigmund Freud assumes the unconscious mind is the most powerful force behind thought and behavior dreams are important for data Modern views… psycho therapy Freud influenced but it is not the same as we use today drug therapy new drugs; Freud used opium on every patient Criteria for diagnosing mental disorders DSM; book for disorder names; classification of disorders Philosophy of Empiricism Empirical evidence acquired from observations and experiments Psychology moved in a more science based direction Sir Francis Bacon (scientific method) John Locke (blank slate theory) Nature only who we become is based on genetics Nurture only we are a product of our experiences Nature through nurture environment interacts with biology to shape who we are (interdependent) the psychophysics of human perceptions first scientific form of psychology relationships between psychology and psychological worlds William James Founder of American psychology Taught G. Stanley Hall G. Stanley Hall established first American lab Francis Sumner First black American with Ph. D in psychology humanism humanists believed that everyone possesses inner resources for personal growth and development stressed the free will of individuals to choose their own patterns of behavior Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers Humanistic behavior an approach that focuses on how an individual's view of him or herself and the world influences behavior Behavior stemming from free will and choices cognition mental processes such as reasoning and problem solving cognitive perspective an approach that focuses on how mental processes influences behavior Cognitive view focuses on thoughts and interpretation based on memory, expectations, beliefs, problem solving, or decision making how people process information and how that influences behavior Positive Psychology the study of factors that contributes to happiness, positive emotions, and well being Martin Seligman positive psychology; goal to enable individuals, families, and communities Carl Rogers least likely to emphasize the influence of stimuli and responses on behavior
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