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by: Courtney Koch

Neuroanatomy SC 20450

Courtney Koch
GPA 3.02

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About this Document

1/14 and 1/19 updated 1/21 (.doc to .pdf)
Neuroscience and Behavior
Dr. Sunny Boyd
Class Notes
neuroanatomy, brain anatomy, neuron anatomy, neuroscience
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This 23 page Class Notes was uploaded by Courtney Koch on Thursday January 21, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to SC 20450 at University of Notre Dame taught by Dr. Sunny Boyd in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 15 views. For similar materials see Neuroscience and Behavior in Biology at University of Notre Dame.

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Date Created: 01/21/16
Neuroscience and Behavior Neuroanatomy Cells, Synapses, and Nerves  Neurons o Wide variety of cell types o Basic neuron anatomy  Multipolar cell (left): multiple branches coming off the soma  Bipolar cell (center): two branches out of soma  Unipolar cell (right): one branch out of soma  Dendrite often myelinated in this case o Immunocytochemistry  Immunofluorescence: you can make an antibody that will bind to a specific protein and, using fluorescence, we can locate the presence of that protein  Tubulin in dendrites and soma  Tao in soma and axons o Golgi Silver Stain  Ramon y Cajal used this method to prove that the nervous system was composed of many separate cells (neurons) rather than a continuous “wiring” in the nervous system  We don’t know why, but the silver stain only seems to turn the neurons black and not the surrounding cells  The fuzzy look to the dendrites is caused by the dendritic spines, which can really only be seen with the Golgi Stain  This shows the neurons between children with disability (2) and those without (1) during infancy (A) and childhood (B). Note the differences in the dendritic spines.  There are different classes of dendritic spines o Neuronal communication across synaptic cleft  The synaptic cleft is a small gap (20-40 nm wide) between the axon of the pre-synaptic cell and the dendrite of the post-synaptic cell  Yellow = synapsin (found in the synapse)  Glial Cells o Assist neuronal activity by providing raw materials, chemical signals, and structure to the neurons o Myelin: a fatty insulating substance that wraps around axons  Oligodendrocytes: form the myelin in central nervous system  Schwann cells: form the myelin in central nervous system o Astrocytes: stretches around neurons and blood vessels  Secrete chemicals and help form outer membrane  Important to blood-brain barrier o Microglial cells: remove debris o Majority of brain tumors are glial (gliomas) because glial cells divide often and neurons don’t  Nervous System Anatomy o The cranial nerves: 12 pairs o Spinal nerves: 31 pairs Collection of cell body inside CNS: nuclei Outside CNS: ganglia Collections of axons inside CNS: tracks Outside CNS: nerves o Spinal cord o Autonomic motor system  Controls involuntary activity of smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, adipose tissue, and glands  Two branches that control the same things but have the opposite effects  Sympathetic nervous system o Fight or Flight o Axons innervate the sympathetic ganglia, small clusters of neurons outside the CNS  Parasympathetic nervous system o Rest and Digest o Neurons run from CNS to parasympathetic ganglia  Autonomic System anatomy  Ganglia placement: o Sympathetic  Normal sympathetic ganglia – close to spine  Adrenal medulla – specialized sympathetic gangliafurther from spine  Collateral ganglia – in between  Uses Acetylcholine (Ach), Norepinephrine (Norepi), and Epinephrine (Epi) o Parasympathetic  Terminal ganglia – far from spine, basically in the tissue  Uses Ach  Receptors  Practical diagnosis What may be causing the uneven dilation of the pupils and drooping eyelid o Horner Syndrome: cut of sympathetic nerve on one side of head  Often caused by stab-wound or shot to neck  All causes issues such as uneven sweating  Take Home Points o Neurons are the basic units of the nervous system. o Neurons vary greatly in form but universally include zones for input, integration, conduction, and output. o Functional communication between neurons occurs across spaces called synapses. o Gross anatomy of the nervous system includes central and peripheral structures. o The autonomic motor system controls involuntary activity of smooth and cardiac muscle, adipose tissue, and glands. Overview of the Brain  Early developmental view o Major divisions established early on (at roughly 20 days of age)  Notochord: mesodermal cells that will induce the formation of the nervous system  The V shaped part is the neuro-ectoderm, which will give rise to the central nervous system  Neural tube becomes central nervous system  Neural crest cells go on to form the peripheral nervous system  Crest cells migrate throughout the rest of the body  Paths: 1, 2, and 4 go on to form the ganglia  Path 3 goes to form the adrenal gland (adrenal medulla)  The brain development Optic cup – becomes the eyes  Overview of adult human nervous system, particularly the brain:  Hills and Valleys of the brain o Hills: gyrus (gyri) Valleys: sulcus (sulci), the deepest ones are known as fissures o Folding increases the surface area of the cortex  Anatomical terminology Horizontal = axial Coronal plane = frontal plane  Divisions of the Cortex  Cerebral cortex: the gray matter of the cortex o Gray because it is composed of highly-packed cell bodies and dendrites o Composed of layers  Gray matter: layers 1-6  Functional columns extend through the layers – devoted to particular tasks  Anatomy of the layers:  Differs across different areas of the cortex  Localization of function  Strokes o Types  Transemic Ischemic Attack (TIA)  Temporary stroke, don’t cause permanent damage  Can be a sign of possible stroke  Clot usually goes away within 24 hours (breaks up)  Basal Ganglia note: caudate and putamen are gray matter o Control movement  Limbic System o 2 functions  Control of emotion  Learning and memory  Diencephalon o Thalamus: sensory relay station o Hypothalamus: controls the internal environment  Autonomic nervous system  Endocrine system  Emotions  Cerebellum o Vestibulo-  Basic control of movement o Spino-  Muscle coordination, control of tone, control of voluntary skill/movement o Cerebro-  Control of particular kinds of voluntary activities  Brainstem o Composed of pons, medulla, and reticular formation o Functions  Relay station (nerves and fibers)  Vegetative centers  Blood pressure, respiration  Pain modulation  Equilibrium and posture  Reticular activating system: connection of cells in brainstem responsible for overall level of arousal  Sleep  Fluids o Blood  Blood-brain barrier: specialized connections between the cells that make up capillaries (endothelial cells)  Foot processes of astrocytes are in connection with these capillaries o Cerebro-spinal fluid  Found in spaces called ventricles  Also found between dura and arachnoid/pia matter  Protective membranes o Choroid plexus: “frothy” tissue found inside the ventricles o Large proportion of production of CSF is in the lateral ventricles  Goes through the sub-arachnoid space and into the venous sinus  Forced out into the blood  Imaging technologies o Structural Imaging  Computerized Tomography (CT)  Rotating x-rays  Have become almost overused in the US and this may correlate with increase in cancer  What the images look like:  Things you can see: hematoma (left) and tumors (right)  MRI  More info collected than CT and doesn’t use x-ray, so that’s a plus  How it works: o Functional Imaging  Shows difference in activity between a control and an active/functional situations  PET scan (looks for presence of radioactive isotope)  fMRI: allows you to see parts of brain involved in particular tasks Take Home Points  Major divisions of the brain are established during development.  The human brain is dominated by the cerebral hemispheres but deeper structures also play critical roles.  The support system of the CNS includes membranes and fluid-filled spaces.  Structural and functional imaging techniques provide maps of the brain.


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