NFS 043: Fundamentals of Nutrition
NFS 043: Fundamentals of Nutrition NFS 043
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Emilly LaFleur on Thursday January 21, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to NFS 043 at University of Vermont taught by Farryl M. Bertmann in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 471 views. For similar materials see Fundamentals of Nutrition in Nutrition and Food Sciences at University of Vermont.
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Date Created: 01/21/16
NFS 043: Fundamentals of Nutrition Lecture 1 Food Choices and Human Health January 19, 2016 Nutrition is the study of food and how we fuel our bodies. Good nutrition and exercise is the true fountain of youth. At age 65, you have consumed 70,000 meals, which is an estimated 50 Tons of food. Your body grows each day, replenishing and revitalizing along the way, TAKE CARE OF IT. Energy Balance = Energy In - Energy Out Energy In: food Energy Out: Energy expended in physical activity Good food choices -> healthy body Bad food choices -> malnutrition, deficiencies, over/under imbalances Diet and Health Connection Influential Lifestyle Habits: Tobacco use, alcohol use, diet choices *Chronic diseases often connect with a poor diet Genetics and Individuality Genetics and nutrition affect diseases to varying degrees Human genome - DNA Genetic <——————————————————————————————> Nutrition Related e s a e s i D Downs Osteoporosis Diabetes Anemia Syndrome Cancer Hypertension Vitamin/Mineral Infectious Heart Disease Deficiencies e s a e s i D Non-Modifiable vs. Modifiable Risk Factors Age Weight Gender Growth Race/Ethnicity Other Lifestyle Choices tobacco and alcohol use substance abuse physical activity sleep stress environmental factors Healthy People 2020: Nutrition Objectives for the Nation U.S. Department of Health set a goal forAmericans to live a healthier lifestyle The Human Body and It’s Food Your body uses energy: mechanical, electrical, thermal *How meat contributes to global warming: The amount of CO2 produced in food production is scary per 1/2 lb of beef, it is equivalent to driving 9.81 mi (7.4 lbs of CO2 equivalent) 40% feed crops 32% greenhouse gas emission from cattle NFS 043: Fundamentals of Nutrition 14% fertilizer 14% general fram production NFS 043: Fundamentals of Nutrition Lecture 2 The Nutrients January 21, 2016 6 Kinds of Nutrients , 4 of which are organic (carbon containing), 3 are energy containing. Carbs -> 4 cal/g, Fats -> 9 cal/g, Proteins -> 4 cal/g Vitamins and Minerals provide no energy, however they do assist in all body processes necessary to sustain life. Elemental Diets tube or peg (in stomach) ^ both keep the organs going IV and TPN don’t use the organs, they supply nutrients, but will not make patients feel full. “Real food” is in this way far superior to direct supplements Nutrient interactions -> phytochemical Supplemental diets don’t work and many current problems regarding them currently revolve around companies not being truthful on what is actually in these supplements. WHOLE FOODS: fruits, veggies, whole grains, legumes, eggs, and milk Fast foods: food that is prepared quickly, may or may not have nutritional value Processed foods: Foods that have been altered in some way or prepared, may or may not be nutritious 5 Characteristics of a Nutritious Diet Variety, Moderation, Calorie Control, Balance,Adequacy Balance -> Your body needs balance, for example when your body has enough calcium your bones are strong and developing, when your body is lacking calcium you will have poor bone growth. Milk and milk products are high in calcium, yet low in iron therefore it is important to have a balanced diet that includes food high in different nutrients. Moderation -> Indulge sometimes (barely effect) ex) Fiber is essential, but too much is not good - this is why we need moderation in our diets, a varied diet is much preferred. Why do we eat what’s bad for us? 1. Taste 2. Cost 3. Healthfulness 4. Connivence 5. Sustainability Common myth: healthy diets cost more Ahealthy diet can often be cheaper than a processed one. However healthy, fresh diets take more preparation time Nutrition as a Science - Field of knowledge composed of organized facts - Active, changing, growing body of knowledge The scientific approach: systematic process to answer questions Scientific challenge -> theories NFS 043: Fundamentals of Nutrition Types of Studies Case study: examples Intervention study: blind study Epidemiological study: correlation Laboratory study: example Can I trust ‘Nutritional News’? Training of News media -> Sensationalism - Be a trend watcher - Read news w/ a educational eye - peer reviewed - description of research methods and subjects - findings presented in context of previous Important Nation Nutrition Research NHANES -> National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) - asks people what they’ve eaten - records measurements of people’s health status Harvard’s Nurses’Health Study est. 1976 238,000 nurses reporting back on women’s health, especially cancer. Changing Behavior takes substantial effort Assessment and goals - Realistic goals Obstacles to change - competence - confidence - motivation 6 Stages of Behavior Change Pre-contemplation Contemplation Preparation Action Maintenance Adoption/Moving On AWay to Judge Which Foods are Most Nutritious - Nutrient Density ex) Nutritious Breakfast vs. Doughnut Breakfast high vitamins/nutrients low vitamins/nutrients high/med energy high energy Sorting the Imposters from the Nutrition Experts *Refer to the visual in the text Identifying Valid Nutrition Info Characteristics of scientific research -properly designed experiments Some Credible Sources: American HeartAssociation, Mayo Clinic
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