Criminology Chapter 1 Notes
Criminology Chapter 1 Notes 3600
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kathryn Hardison on Thursday January 21, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 3600 at University of Missouri - Columbia taught by Andrew Fisher in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 181 views. For similar materials see Criminology in Sociology at University of Missouri - Columbia.
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Date Created: 01/21/16
Criminology Chapter 1: Crime and Criminology Criminology o Definition An academic field that uses the scientific method to study the nature, extent, cause, and control of criminal behavior o Practices of Criminology Sociology, criminal justice, political science, psychology, economics, engineering, and natural sciences o Criminology vs. Criminal Justice Criminal justice is different agencies of control Police, FBI, CIA, etc. What Criminologists Do o Criminal Statistics and Measurements Valid Measurements A factual measure Reliable Measurements A measurement that produces consistent results Ex: How much crime occurs annually? When? Where? Stereotypes? How Criminologists Measure Analysis o Police and court agencies Measurement o Unreported criminal activity Ex: surveys of how many criminals escaped detection. Call people. Identification o Victims and criminals Ex: contact a women’s shelter and find unreported crimes Testing o Theories that explain crime Ex: income inequality and how crime relates o Sociology of Law/Law and Society/Social Legal Studies Investigate the history of legal thought Assess effects of legal change Ex: Why are certain acts illegal and others aren’t? Sex Offender Registration Megan’s Law (1994) Zgoba and Bachae (2009) o Development of Theories Psychological Personality, development, social learning, cognition “Crime of the individual” Biological Biochemical, genetic, neurological Environment and chemical makeup Sociological Neighborhood, poverty, socialization, group interaction Getting involved with drugs, may need a job Criminal Behavior Systems Violence, Organized Crime, Terrorism Crimes as patterns rather than criminals as patterns o Ex: More crime in the spring? o Penology: Punishment, Sanctions, Corrections Penology The correction and sentencing of criminal offenders Rehabilitation = Treatment Will this prevent additional crime? Social Control = Punishment Is there more exoneration with death row? Exoneration When a person is found not guilty after being punished o Victimology: The Role of a Victim Victim Surveys Measures extinct of criminal behavior o The therapy, time off work, and money victims need to replace or fix the actions of criminal behavior Risk A victim is more likely to know the criminal who kills them or commits a white collar crime Few are victimless o Do you put yourself in harms way? Culpability Ex: Putting jewelry behind glass in stores. Something must have happened previously for the glass to need to be there. Services to Victims The victim has the right to know when the criminal goes to court, where they are, etc. History of Criminology o Classic Criminology (18 century) Utilitarianism Free will Eliminated cruel punishment It is our choice to commit a crime Crime is attractive Can be controlled through fear of punishment Demanded more obedience with the idea of punishment Punishment is good when it is severe, certain, and swift Punishment was meant to fit the crime th o Positivist Criminology (19 century) Scientific Method Calculations, verifications Logic “Nature is a machine” You can take the nature of criminal behavior apart and find answers Empirical Verification Any theory or idea should be backed up by any law or idea ValueFree No biases in the science “You have to prove the world through measurements” o Early Criminology Positivism Physiognomists Study facial features to find antisocial behaviors o Ex: shape of nose, closeness of eyes, etc. Phenologists Study injuries to find antisocial behaviors o Ex: bumps on skull o Biological Determinism Cesare Lombroso “Father of Criminology” Studied cadavers of executed criminals in an effort to determine scientifically how criminals differed from noncriminals Biosocial Theory Focuses on interaction between biological and social factors that relate to crime o Ex: gender, economic status o MRIs are used now o Sociological Criminology (19 century) Crime is a social phenomenon that reflects social and economic conditions Functions Crime is useful and healthy for a society o Crime paves the way for change in a society and keeps the society together Conflict Crime is inevitable Symbolic o Developmental Criminology (20 century) Sheldon and Eleanor Glueck Interpreted biological and psychological ideologies through the course of criminal careers Developmental Theory Views criminality as a dynamic process, influenced by biological, social, and psychological elements o Contemporary Criminology Rational Choice Theory Criminals are rational choice makers o You choose to commit a crime Based on classical criminology Trait Theory Biological positivism + biological psychology + environmental factors Believe there is a link between criminal behavior and level factors o Ex: diet, hormones, intelligence Social Structure Theory Sociological criminology + social environment A person’s place in the social structure determines their behavior Ex: If you are poor, you will commit a crime Social Process Theory How a person goes from a noncriminal to a criminal Children are raised to be this way o Mirroring behaviors seen in society or in their home “Shattered social bonds with society” Critical Theory Social + political conflict The distribution of wealth and economic structure Developmental Theory Personal traits + social conditions = criminal life Broad overview of how it is discovered Deviant vs. Criminal o Deviance A action that violates social norms, whether positive or negative Ex: assault or murder (); joining a cult (/+); winning a Nobel (+) o Criminal When the action is deemed socially harmful or dangerous; it will then be specifically defined, prohibited, and punished under the criminal law Concepts of Crime o Consensus Belief that the majority shares common values and agrees on what behaviors are criminal in society o Conflict Belief that criminal behavior is determined by people of power and crime is defined to protect their power Ex: Poor = prison; Wealth = probation o Interactionist People with social power impose their values on society and this defines criminal behavior Consensus through conflict Crime o Definition A violation of societal rules of behavior as interpreted and expressed by the criminal law, which reflects public opinion, traditional values, and the viewpoint of people currently holding social and political power. Individuals who violate these rules are subject to sanctions by state authorities, social stigma, and the loss of status. o You can get rid of crime if you get rid of laws
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