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Hormone Producing Structures PowerPoint Week 1 and 2 Notes

by: Victoria Hills

Hormone Producing Structures PowerPoint Week 1 and 2 Notes Biol 2230-001

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These weekly set of notes contain all the slides of powerpoint 2: Hormone Producing Structures from the 1/14 and 1/19 classes.
Human Anatomy & Physiology II
Dr. John Cummings
Class Notes
anatomy, Physiology, Clemson, Cummings, hormone, producing, structures
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This 11 page Class Notes was uploaded by Victoria Hills on Thursday January 21, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Biol 2230-001 at Clemson University taught by Dr. John Cummings in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 46 views. For similar materials see Human Anatomy & Physiology II in Biology at Clemson University.


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Date Created: 01/21/16
Clemson  University     Spring  2016   Human  Anatomy  and  Physiology  II   Hormone-­‐Producing  Structures  PowerPoint     1/14/16  Notes     Slide  1:  Hormone-­‐Producing  Structures   Slide  2:  Thyroid  Gland   • Two  lobes  connected  by  isthmus  across  the  front   • Located  around  the  trachea  beneath  the  larynx     • Largest  pure  endocrine  gland  à  Meaning  that  it  only  produces  hormones   Slide  3:  Histological  Composition  of  the  Thyroid  Gland   • The  thyroid  gland  is  composed  of  follicles  that  are  made  up  of  epithelial  cells   (cuboidalepithelium)  that  produce  thyroglobulin  protein  which  is  stored  in   the  follicles  as  colloid  substance     • Thyroid  hormone  is  derived  from  colloid   • TSH  (Thyroid  Stimulating  Hormone)  stimulates  the  follicles  to  produce   thyroglobulin,  which  is  a  component  of  thyroid  hormone  (TH)     • Thyroglobuilin  will  combine  with  iodine  to  make  TH  =  thyroxin     • The  thyroid  gland  is  unique  because  it  is  the  only  endocrine  gland  that  can   store  its  secretions  à  All  other  endocrine  gland  secrete  hormones  that  are   immediately  released  into  the  blood  stream     • The  thyroid  gland  also  contains  other  cells  located  between  the  follicles   called  parafollicular  cells  that  produce  calcitonin  (A  different  hormone)   • Calictonin  shuts  off  osteoplasts  (Cells  in  bones)   Slide  4:  Thyroid  Hormone   • TH  is  actually  2  separate  hormones:   a) T : 3  Thryoglobulin  +  3  iodine   b) T : 4  Thyroglobulin  +  4  iodine   • Almost  every  cell  in  the  body  has  a  receptor  for  Thyroxin  (TH)  except  the   brain,  spleen,  testes,  uterus,  and  the  thyroid  gland  itself   • TH  is  a  major  hormone  that  regulates  metabolic  activity—Oxidation  of   glucose   • Bringing  it  together:  Hypothalamus  releases  TRH  that  stimulates  that   anterior  pituitary  gland  to  release  TSH  that  stimulates  the  thyroid  to  release   T 3  and 4T  into  the  blood  stream  to  bind  to  specific  receptors  (Negative   feedback  mechanism)   Slide  5:  Functions  of  Thyroid  Hormone   • TH  stimulates  the  oxidation  of  glucose  so  that  it  is  broken  down  by  the  cell  to   produce  energy  (Increases  basal  metabolic  rate)  and  liberates  heat     -­‐ Calorigenic  effect:  Heat  produced  when  glucose  is  broken  down  by  the   cell  for  energy   • TH  helps  maintain  blood  pressure  à  It  causes  can  increase  of  adrenergic   receptors     -­‐  TH  binds  to  norepinephrine  that  then  binds  to  the  adrenergic  receptors  on   the  blood  vessels  that  causes  vasoconstriction  so  that  blood  pressure  is   increased       • Regulates  tissue  growth  and  development,  especially  with  skeletal  and   nervous  systems     -­‐  Ex:  Permissiveness  à  Gonadotropins  (LH  and  FSH)  cause  the  development   of  sex  organs  and  if  TH  is  circulating  at  the  same  time  as  these,  great  sex   organ  development  is  stimulated     Slide  6:  Synthesis   • The  anterior  pituitary  gland  secretes  TSH  which  travels  to  the  thyroid  gland   via  blood  vessels   • TSH  triggers  the  production  of  thyroglobulin  by  cuboidal  cells  that   accumulates  in  the  follicles  as  colloid   • TSH  also  stimulates  active  transport  of  iodine  into  the  follicles     • Thyroglobulin  is  then  iodized  in  2  different  circumstances:  (Occurring  in  the   colloid)   a) Thyroglobulin  +  1  iodine  = 1    Leads  to  form3  T   b) Thyroglobulin  +  2  iodine  = 2    Leads  to  form4  T   • T 3  and 4 T  are  still  in  the  colloid  at  this  point  and  the  thyroid  will  secrete  both   from  the  colloid  so  that  they  move  back  into  the  follicular  cells  to  be   packaged  into  lysosomes     • The  lysosomes  transport  T 3 and  T4    where  they  are  released  into  the   bloodstream  via  lysosomal  enzymes     • Most  TH  is  produced  at  night     Slide  7:  Diurnal  Cycle   • The  thyroid  is  unique  in  that  it  can  store  hormones  (2-­‐3  months  supply   worth)   • TSH  normally  is  secreted  around  the  time  one  gets  tired  (Peaks  before  sleep   and  remains  high  at  night)   • Produced  TH  is  stored  in  the  extracellular  colloid   • When  energy  is  needed  during  the  day,  the  thyroid  secretes  TH     • Effect  of  sleep  deprivation:  Not  producing  as  much  TH  and  therefore  energy   is  lost     Slide  8:  Transport   • T  and  T  are  released  into  the  blood  stream  and  must  bind  to  transport   3 4 proteins  in  order  to  reach  specific  cell  receptors  where  they  are  going  to  have   an  effect   • TBG  (Thyroxin  Binding  Globulin)  is  the  major  transport  protein  where  it   delivers  TH  to  target  cells   • TH  is  an  AA  based  hormone  that  binds  to  intracellular  receptors  (An   exception  of  AA  based  hormones  normally  binding  to  receptors  on  the   surface  of  cells)  à  TH  functions  like  a  steroid  then  which  is  why  TBG  is  so   important  so  that  it  helps  with  getting  TH  inside  the  cell  to  its  receptors     • Transcription  by  TH  is  then  promoted  like  a  steroid     Slide  9:  Feedback   • Increasing  levels  of 4 T  (Thyroxine)  inhibit  TSH  production  while  falling  levels   reversibly  stimulate  TSH  production  that  produces  the 4T  (Negative   feedback)   • An  increase  in  body  energy  needs  stimulate  the  release  of  TRH  that   stimulates  TSH  that  stimulates  TH  release     Slide  10:  Calcitonin   • Hormone  produced  by  the  parafollicular  cells  =  C  cells  (C  is  for  calcitonin)     • Its  effects  are  to  lower  blood  calcium  levels  à  It  takes  calcium  out  of   circulation  and  stores  it  in  bone  and  muscle   • Calcitonin  is  most  important  during  rapid  skeletal  growth  and  reformation  à   Plays  the  biggest  role  in  childhood  (And  does  not  have  as  big  of  a  role  once   one  hits  puberty)   Slide  11:  Action  of  Calcitonin   • Inhibits  osteoclast  activity  à  Shuts  off  osteoclasts  so  that  the  breaking  down   of  bone  to  release  calcium  is  inhibited     • Stimulates  the  uptake  of  calcium  into  the  bone  and  muscle     Slide  12:  Feedback   • High  calcium  levels  are  humoral  stimuli  for  C  cell  (parafollicular  cell)  activity     • Low  calcium  levels  inhibit  C  cell  activity  à  As  take  out  calcium  out  of   circulation,  levels  get  lower  so  the  C  cells  shut  off  and  calcitonin  production   stops   Slide  13:  Parathyroid  Gland   • Embedded  in  the  posterior  portion  of  the  thyroid  gland     • Has  2  types  of  cells:  Oxyphil  and  Chief     Slide  14:  Histological  Composition  of  the  Parathyroid  Gland   • 2  Types  of  Glandular  Cells:   a) Oxyphil:  It  is  not  clear  what  these  cells  do   b) Chief:  Secrete  parathyroid  hormone  (PTH)   • Able  to  tell  the  difference  between  the  thyroid  and  parathyroid  because  each   have  different  follicles  and  tissues     Slide  15:  Parathyroid  Hormone  (PTH)   • PTH  is  the  most  important  hormone  in  controlling  blood  calcium  balance  of   blood     • Calcitonin  causes  a  reduction  in  blood  calcium   • PTH  is  an  antagonist  so  that  is  causes  an  increase  in  blood  calcium   • Therefore,  triggers  for  PTH  to  be  produced  by  the  chief  cells  is  low  blood   calcium   Slide  16:  Action  of  PTH   • PTH  stimulates  the  osteoplasts  to  release  calcium  and  some  phosphates  into   the  blood  stream  (Breaking  down  bown)   • PTH  also  enhances  reabsorption  of  calcium  in  the  kidneys  so  that  it  is  kept  in   the  body  and  not  excreted  out  via  urination     • PTH  increases  absorption  of  calcium  in  the  intestines   • Promotes  the  kidneys  to  convert  Vitamin  D  to  its  active  form,  ca3citriol  (D )— Necessary  to  be  present  in  the  intestines  in  order  for  calcium  to  be  absorbed   by  the  body     Slide  17:  Adrenal  Glands   • Paired  glands  located  atop  each  kidney     • Each  is  comprised  of  a  cortex  and  medulla   • Cortex:  Glandular  epithelium  =  secretory  epithelial  cells   • Medulla:  Part  of  the  sympathetic  nervous  system     • Norepinephrine  is  a  neurotransmitter  that  is  released  by  post-­‐ganglionic   sympathetic  fibers  (Secreted  by  the  medulla)   • The  cortex  secretes  steroid  hormones     • All  adrenal  secretions  help  fight  off  stress   Slide  18:  Adrenal  Cortex  Hormones   • 3  classes  of  steroids  (Corticosteroids)  are  produced  by  the  cortex:   Mineralocorticoids,  glucocorticoids,  gonadocorticoids   • This  means  that  there  are  3  different  regions  and  different  types  of  cells  that   correspond  with  each  steroid  as  a  result   • ATCH  (Adrenocorticotropic  Hormone)  is  secreted  from  the  anterior  pituitary   gland  and  affects  the  cortex  which  causes  the  production  of  many  of  the   steroids   Slide  19:  Histological  Composition  of  the  Adrenal  Glands   • 3  zones  where  each  zone  produces  a  different  class  of  corticosteroids:   a) Zona  glomerulosa  (Mineralocorticoids)   b) Zona  fasiculata  (Glucocorticoids)   c) Zona  reticularis  (Gonadocorticoids)   Slide  20:  Mineralocorticoids   • Major  hormone  from  mineralocorticoids  is  aldosterone  (95%)     • Aldosterone  helps  regulate  electrolyte  concentrations  of  extracellular  fluids   in  our  body—Particularly  the  sodium-­‐potassium  combination  that  are   involved  in  membrane  potentials     • As  aldosterone  regulate  concentration  of  electrolytes,  water  will  follow   concentration  gradients  so  aldosterone  is  very  important  with  regulating   blood  pressure     1/19/16  Notes       Slide  21:  Action  of  Aldosterone   • Aldosterone  stimulates  reabsorption  of  sodium  in  the  kidneys  à  As  blood  is   filtered,  substances  are  in  the  filtrate  that  will  go  out  as  urine  unless  they  are   reabsorbed  into  the  circulatory  system     • An  osmotic  gradient  is  created  with  the  reabsorption  of  sodium  back  into  the   blood  stream  by  the  kidneys  so  that  there  is  more  sodium  in  the  blood   stream  than  in  the  filtrate  that  is  to  be  urinated  out  of  the  body  à  Water   follows  the  sodium  and  this  regulates  blood  volume  and  therefore  blood   pressure   • Other  ions  are  also  linked  to  sodium  and  play  a  role  in  blood  pressure  and   blood  volume  control     • Essentially,  with  the  reabsorption  of  sodium  by  the  kidneys,  the  blood   volume  changes  and  this  affects  the  blood  pressure     • Reabsorption  of  sodium  in  the  kidneys  is  aldosterone’s  primary  action  but   the  corticosteroid  is  able  to  affect  other  glands  as  well:  Sweat,  saliva,  gastric   juice  glands  for  example   Slide  22:  Feedback   • The  anterior  pituitary  gland  secretes  ATCH  that  stimulates  the  adrenal  cortex   to  produce  hormones  (This  is  one  method  of  aldosterone  production  that  is   not  the  major  method)   • Aldosterone  secretion  by  the  adrenal  cortex  is  stimulated  by:   a) Humoral  effects:  High  potassium  levels  and  low  sodium  levels  in  the   bloodstream     b) Low  blood  volume   c) Low  blood  pressure   • **  ATCH  functions  predominantly  on  glucocorticoids  and  not   mineralocorticoids  (Review)   Slide  23:  Mechanisms  of  Secretion  –  Renin-­‐Angiotensin  Mechanism     • This  is  main  method  in  which  aldosterone  is  stimulated  by     • The  liver  is  continuously  producing  a  protein  called  angiotensinogen  that  is   an  inactive  form  of  a  protein     • The  kidneys,  when  stimulated  properly,  will  produce  renin  that  converts  the   inactive  angiotensinogen  into  the  active  form  called  angiotensin   • Angiotensin  stimulates  the  adrenal  cortex  to  produce  aldosterone  that  has   effects  on  the  kidneys  to  reabsorb  sodium     • Low  blood  pressure  also  stimulates  the  kidneys  to  start  producing  renin     • Because  the  liver  is  producing  the  inactive  angiotensinogen  all  the  time,  the   production  of  renin  is  key  for  aldosterone  production     • Overall,  there  are  many  other  ways  that  stimulate  aldosterone  production:   Combined  effects  of  the  nervous  and  endocrine  activity  that  maintain   homeostasis  in  the  body  so  there’s  a  lot  of  interaction  to  fine  tune  all  of  the   complexities  that  go  into  relations  with  aldosterone     Slide  24:  Mechanisms  of  Secretion  –  Plasma  Concentration  Mechanism     • High  potassium  and  low  sodium  in  the  blood  have  a  direct  effect  on  the  zona   glomerulosa  (Where  the  mineralocorticoids  are  produced  à  stimulate   aldosterone  production)   • Low  potassium  and  high  sodium  in  the  blood  inhibit  the  zona  glomerulosa   Slide  25:  Mechanisms  of  Secretion  –  ACTH  Mechanism   • Stress  stimulates  CRH  production  in  the  hypothalamus  à  Stimulates   corticotrope  cells  in  the  anterior  pituitary  gland  to  release  ACTH  à   Stimulates  aldosterone  production  in  the  zona  glomerulosa  of  the  adrenal   cortex  (Not  much  though  with  this  mechanism)   Slide  26:  Mechanism  of  Secretion  –  Atrial  Natriuretic  Peptide  (ANP)   • ANP  is  a  hormone  produced  by  the  heart  and  is  secreted  due  to  high  blood   pressure   • High  blood  pressure  puts  a  lot  of  stress  on  the  heart  so  ANP  is  secreted  to   inhibit  renin  which  in  turn  inhibits  aldosterone  production     Slide  27:  Glucocorticoids   • The  major  hormone  is  cortisol     • Cortisol  regulates  energy  metabolism  of  most  cells  in  the  body  and  helps   resist  stress     • Examples  of  stimulants  of  stress  for  cortisol:  Cold  weather,  emotional   stresses,  etc.     Slide  28:  Action  of  Cortisol   • Cortisol  affects  energy  metabolism  by  maintaining  blood  glucose  levels  by   promoting  gluconeogenesis  (This  is  not  the  main  way  to  regulate  blood   glucose  levels  though)   • Gluconeogenesis:  The  production  of  new  carbohydrate  from  non-­‐ carbohydrate  sources  –  FA  and  proteins  are  broken  down  to  be  used  for   making  glucose  and  therefore  for  energy   • Cortisol  also  is  related  to  blood  volume  and  maintaining  it  à  It  prevents   water  from  leaving  the  blood  and  going  into  body  cells  (Inhibits  water  uptake   by  body  cells)     Slide  29:  Feedback  of  Cortisol   • The  hypothalamus  secretes  CRH  which  stimulates  the  anterior  pituitary   gland  to  secrete  ACTH  which  stimulates  the  adrenal  cortex  to  produce   cortisol  (Zona  fasiculata)   • **  ACTH  results  are  predominantly  in  the  production  of  glucocorticoids   • As  cortisol  is  produced  and  levels  rise,  it  inhibits  CRH  and  therefore  ACTH   release  that  shuts  cortisol  production  off   Slide  30:  Effects  of  Stress     • Stress  increases  cortisol  production  which  in  turn  increases  gluconeogenesis     • FA  and  protein  (to  AA)  have  to  be  liberated  out  of  storage  and  be  broken   down  to  be  reconverted  into  glucose  for  energy  production   • Cortisol  causes  vasoconstriction  which  increases  blood  pressure  as  a  result     Slide  31:  Gonadocortiocoids     • Gonadocorticoids  are  produced  by  zona  reticularis  of  the  adrenal  cortex   • The  major  hormones  of  the  gonadocorticoids  are  weak  androgens  à  DHEA   • DHEA  is  a  precursor  for  testosterone  or  estrogen   • Glucocorticoids  (DHEA  included)  contribute  to  the  onset  of  puberty;  Prior  to   puberty  there  is  little  produced  by  the  adrenal  cortex   • DHEA  also  provides  sex  drive  for  women     Slide  32:  Feedback   • CRH  from  the  hypothalamus  stimulates  ACTH  from  the  anterior  pituitary   gland  to  stimulate  the  production  of  gonadotropins     • There  does  not  seen  to  be  an  inhibitor  for  the  production  of  gonadotropins  à   Therefore,  one  the  gonadotropins  being  producing,  they  continue  to  do  so   throughout  life   Slide  33:  Adrenal  Medulla  Hormones   • The  adrenal  medulla  is  sympathetic  nervous  tissue  à  It  uses  norepinephrine   as  a  neaurotransmitter  that  also  works  as  a  hormone  too     • Essentially  the  adrenal  medulla  produces  modified  sympathetic  neurons  that   are  released  into  the  circulatory  system  to  the  liver  and  throughout  the  body   (They  are  not  sent  to  a  synapse)   • Epinephrine  and  norepinephrine  together  makeup  adrenaline     Slide  34:  Histological  Composition     • Chromaffin  cells  are  modified  ganglionic  sympathetic  neurons  that  secrete   epinephrine  and  norepinephrine  (catecholamines)   Slide  35:  Action   • Stress  promotes  sympathetic  nervous  activity  (Fight  or  flight  response)   which  leads  to  the  release  of  epinephrine  and  norepinephrine  because  the   nervous  tissue  has  been  activated  which  has  also  led  to  an  increase  in  blood   sugar  as  a  result   • Fight  or  flight:  Means  the  body  is  getting  ready  to  fight  stress  or  flee  from  it   and  to  do  this,  there  has  to  be  energy  available  which  is  accomplished  by   stimulating  the  release  of  glucose  into  the  bloodstream     • Norepinephrine  especially  causes  the  constriction  of  blood  vessels  à   increase  in  blood  pressure     • The  fight  or  flight  response  causes  blood  to  be  sent  from  the  extremities  to   the  brain,  heart,  and  skeletal  muscles  and  circulation  is  also  geared  primarily   more  towards  preganglionic  sympathetic  nerve  endings     • The  release  of  epinephrine  and  norepinephrine  is  also  a  much  shorter   response  for  stress  and  demonstrates  the  link  between  the  nervous  and   endocrine  systems     Slide  36:  Pancreas   • The  pancreas  is  located  in  the  abdominal  cavity  behind  the  stomach     • Has  both  endocrine  and  exocrine  functions  à  Therefore,  more  than  one  type   of  cell  is  present   • Exocrine  part:  Secretes  enzymes  into  a  duct  that  dumps  into  the  small   intestine  where  there  is  digestion  involvement     • Endocrine  part:  Secretes  hormones  that  go  to  the  surface  and  get  into  the   blood  stream  (Insulin  and  glucagon)   Slide  37:    Histological  Composition  of  the  Pancreas   • Most  of  the  pancreas  is  composed  of  the  acinar  pancreas  that  is  made  up  of   acinar  cells  =  exocrine  portion  that  produces  enzymes  for  digestion     • The  Islets  of  Langerhans  (Pancreatic  islets)  are  located  throughout  acinar   portion     • 2  types  of  cell  sin  the  Islets  of  Langerhans:  Alpha  (Produce  glucagon)  and   beta  (produce  insulin)  à  Both  of  these  hormones  are  antagonists     Slide  38:  Glucagon   • Functions  on  the  liver  to  release  glucose  into  the  blood  stream  as  free  glucose   via  taking  the  glucose  out  of  storage  (Most  glucose  is  stored  in  the  liver  as   glycogen)   Slide  39:  Actions  of  Glucagon   • First,  glycogen  is  broken  down  into  glucose  that  is  released  into  the  bloods   stream   • Glucagon  also  stimulates  glucose  to  be  synthesized  from  lactic  acid:   -­‐ When  muscles  are  being  used  a  lot,  lactic  acid  is  produced  and  then   circulates  throughout  the  body  until  it  reaches  the  liver   -­‐ Liver  uses  lactic  acid  as  an  energy  source  which  can  then  be  converted   back  into  glucose  and  be  used  by  muscle  (or  other  cells)  again  for  energy   -­‐ Overall:  The  waste  product  of  lactic  acid  from  muscle  contraction  =  food   source  for  liver  =  food  source  for  muscle  again     • Glucagon  essentially  function  sin  increasing  blood  glucose  levels  by  releasing   it  into  the  blood   Slide  40:  Feedback  of  Glucagon   • Humoral  control:  Low  blood  glucose  (sugar)  levels  and  high  AA  levels   stimulate  the  pancreas  to  produce  glucagon  from  the  acinar  cells  of  the  Islets   of  Langerhans   • High  blood  glucose  and  low  AA  levels  shuts  off  the  production  of  glucagon   • Sympathetic  stimulation  of  the  adrenal  medulla  promotes  the  release  of:   Epinephrine  and  norepinephrine  à  Help  increase  blood  glucose  levels  as   well  and  will  stimulate  glucagon  production  by  the  pancreas   • Somatostatin  (GHIH)  production  also  shuts  off  glucagon  –  In  terms  of  not   needing  as  much  energy  when  one  is  done  growing   Slide  41:  Insulin   • Insulin  decreases  blood  glucose  levels  by  signaling  cells  to  take  up  glucose   out  of  the  blood  stream   • Influences  protein  and  fat  metabolism  (Anabolic  hormone  so  signals  for  the   build  up  of  these)   Slide  42:  Actions  of  Insulin   • Signals  for  glucose  to  be  taken  out  of  the  blood  stream  via  enhancing   membrane  transport  of  glucose  into  cells     • Inhibits  the  breakdown  of  glycogen  into  glucose  (Left  as  storage)   • Inhibits  the  conversion  of  AA  or  FA  (Fats)  to  glucose   • Promotes  glycogen  production  predominantly  in  the  liver  when  there  is   excess  glucose   • Rest  of  excess  glucose  goes  to  fatty  acid  synthesis  and  further  triglyceride   storage  in  adipose  tissue   • It  is  important  to  note  that  there  is  some  oxidation  of  glucose  when  cells  take   up  glucose  by  the  cell  for  the  needed  amount  of  energy  by  the  cell  at  that  time     • Glucocorticoids  play  a  similar  role  with  blood  sugar  level  s   Slide  43:  Feedback  of  Insulin   • High  blood  sugar  levels  stimulate  the  beta  cells  of  the  Islets  of  Langerhans  in   the  pancreas  to  produce     • High  levels  of  AA  and  FA  also  stimulate  insulin  production     • Parasympathetic  release  of  acetylcholine  stimulates  the  release  of  insulin  as   well     • Hormonal  influences  also  exist   • **  Sympathetic  nervous  activity  relates  to  glucagon  and  parasympathetic   nervous  activity  relates  to  insulin     Slide  44:  Gonads   • Testes     • Ovaries   • Both  produce  the  same  sex  hormones  that  the  adrenal  cortex  produces  (Acts   as  precursors  at  this  point  in  the  adrenal  cortex)  à  Testosterone  and   estrogen     Slide  45:  Sex  Hormones   • Male:  Testosterone   • Female:  Estrogen,  progesterone   • Both  genders  produce  all  but  in  different  amounts   Slide  46:  Actions  of  Gonads   • Testosterone:   -­‐ Stimulates  the  maturation  and  maintenance  of  male  reproductive  organs     -­‐ Secondary  sex  characteristics  à  Enlarged  muscle  mass,  increased  body   hair,  oil  production,  deeper  voice,  etc.     -­‐ Promotes  sex  drive   -­‐ Stimulates  male  gamete  (sperm)  production     • Estrogen:   -­‐ Stimulates  the  maturation  and  maintenance  of  the  female  reproductive   organs   -­‐ Female  secondary  characteristics  à  Accumulation  of  fat  in  hips/breasts,   smoother  skin,  less  oil,  higher  voice,  less  hair,  etc.   • Progesterone:   -­‐ Functions  with  estrogen  to  promote  breast  development     -­‐ Functions  with  estrogen  to  cause  cyclic  changes  in  the  uterine  lining   (menstrual  cycle)   Slide  47:  Feedback  of  the  Gonads   -­‐ Production  of  the  sex  hormones  (gonadic  hormones)  are  stimulated  by   gonadotropins     -­‐ As  high  levels  of  gonadotropins  are  present,  they  shut  themselves  off   Slide  48:  Pineal  Gland   • Pea  size  gland  that  extends  from  the  third  ventricle  of  diencephalon  and  is   made  up  of  pinealocytes   Slide  49:  Histological  Composition  of  the  Pineal  Gland   • Pinealocytes  are  the  hormone  producing  cells  in  the  pineal  gland   • Responsible  for  the  production  of  melatonin   Slide  50:  Melatonin   • Promotes  drowsiness   • Inhibits  sexual  maturation  à  Prior  to  puberty  almost  no  gonadotropin  is   produced  because  melatonin  shuts  it  off   • Therefore,  melatonin  helps  time  puberty  (Reduces  in  levels  when  puberty  is   about  to  occur)   • Melatonin  is  continued  to  be  produced  in  adulthood  and  is  instead  used  to   make  us  feel  drowsy  à  Sunlight  (UV  radiation)  inhibits  the  pineal  gland  so   when  the  sun  sets,  inhibition  is  lost  and  melatonin  levels  increase  so  we  sleep   (Sleep-­‐wake  cycle)   Slide  51:  Thymus   • Located  beneath  the  sternum  an  don  top  of  the  heart  (Deep  to  sternum  in   thorax)   • Size  diminishes  with  age  à  It’s  very  active  in  an  embryo  and  child   Slide  52:  Thymus  Hormones   • 3  classes  of  hormones  are  produced  that  all  influence  the  development  of  T   lymphocytes  (Specialized  white  blood  cells  that  function  to  give  us   immunity):   a) Thymoproteins   b) Thymic  Factor   c) Thymosins   • When  there  is  an  embryo/small  child,  the  thymus  produces  these  hormones   that  cause  the  T  lymphocytes  to  be  produced  to  get  the  body  ready  to  have  an   immune  system  before  they  come  in  contact  with  pathogens     • With  age,  immunity  declines  so  it  is  important  to  have  a  strong  immunity  as  a   child  because  it  will  have  to  be  carried  with  us  until  death     Slide  53:  Other  Hormone  Producers-­‐  Heart   • Releases  ANP  (Atrial  Natriuretic  Peptide)  that  shuts  off  aldosterone   production  by  inhibiting  renin  production  so  that  there  is  an  increase  in   urinary  output  à  Sodium  is  not  reabsorbed   • ANP  production  is  promoted  by  high  blood  pressure,  which  is  reduced  by   getting  the  fluids  out  of  the  blood  via  increasing  urine  production     Slide  54:  Other  Hormone  Producers-­‐  Gastrointestinal  Tract   • Many  places  along  the  GI  tract  secrete  hormones  that  affect  the  digestive   activity     • Ex:  Hormone  produce  by  the  small  intestine  will  affect  stomach  activity;   hormone  produced  by  the  stomach  affects  small  intestine  activity,  etc.   Slide  55:  Other  Hormone  Producers-­‐  Placenta   • Both  the  female  and  embryo  produce  the  placenta  organ     • Hormone  producing  structure  of  estrogen,  progesterone,  and  hCG  (Human   Chorionic  Gonadotropin)     • hCG  =  what  pregnancy  tests  detect   • All  of  these  hormones  produced  by  the  placenta  will  influence  the   development  of  the  fetus  and  ovary  maintenance   Slide  56:  Other  Hormone  Producers-­‐  Kidneys   • Produce  erythropoietin  that  stimulates  the  production  of  red  blood  cells   Slide  57:  Other  Hormone  Producers-­‐  Skin   • Produces  cholecalciferol  that  is  an  inactive  form  of  Vitamin  D3   • It  is  converted  to  the  active  form  of  Vitamin  D3  =  calciferol  under  the   influence  of  sunlight   • Vitamin  D3  is  also  important  for  the  absorption  of  calcium  in  the  digestive   tract   Slide  58:  Adipose  Tissue   • Produces  leptin   • As  one  takes  in  excess  calories,  it  is  put  into  storage  in  adipose  tissue,  and  as   adipose  tissue  increases  in  amount,  the  production  of  leptin  increases  which   reduces  appetite  and  encourages  an  increase  in  energy  expenditure  to  try  to   reduce  the  amount  of  energy  stored   • Also  produces  resistin  that  is  an  antagonist  of  insulin     Slide  59:  Endocrine  Gland  Development   • Endocrine  glands  can  arrive  from  all  3  embryonic  germ  layers     • Mesoderm:  Gives  rise  to  the  steroid  producing  endocrine  glands   • Ectoderm  and  endoderm:  Give  rise  to  the  AA  derived  hormones   • Endocrine  gland  activity  changes  with  age  (Excellent  ex:  Thymus,   reproductive  hormone  activity,  etc.)   • Endocrine  gland  activity  can  be  influenced  by  environmental  cuesà  Ex:  If   one  is  cold,  the  thyroid  gland  can  release  more  thyroid  hormone  to  increase   metabolic  activity  to  increase  heat  production        


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