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BIOL 141 lecture 1 notes

by: Camryn McCabe

BIOL 141 lecture 1 notes Biol 141

Marketplace > Science > Biol 141 > BIOL 141 lecture 1 notes
Camryn McCabe
Penn State
GPA 3.81

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notes from the first lecture: 1/11-1/20
Janelle Malcos
Class Notes
Biology, Physiology
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Camryn McCabe on Thursday January 21, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Biol 141 at a university taught by Janelle Malcos in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 209 views.

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Date Created: 01/21/16
Lecture 1 notes  Homeostasis- how the body maintains a constant environment; maintains certain set point rangers o Large external fluctuations; ex. Temperature outside o Small internal fluctuations; ex. Body pH level o Maintains by negative or positive feedback loops  Negative: change is detected by the body, body reacts to reverse the condition  Ex. (outside of the human body) o A room drops below the set temperature of 72 degrees o The thermostat senses the change and turns on the furnace o The furnace warms the room back up to 72 o The thermostat senses that the room is back at 72 and turns off furnace  Positive: self-amplifying cycles; an initial change leads to a greater change  Used for rapid change in the body  Ex. Contractions during labor o Baby’s head presses on cervix o Pressure promote stronger and stronger contractions o …until eventually the baby’s head is in the birth canal  Chemistry o Subatomic particles  atoms  elements o Subatomic particles: protons, neutrons, electrons  # of protons = atomic number of an element  For neutral atoms: # protons = # electrons  Located in nucleus: protons and neutrons o Ions- atoms/molecules where # protons ≠ # electrons  Cations: (+) charge  Easily give up electrons  Take in positivity  Anions: (-) charge  Easily accept electrons  Take in negativity -  Also can be complex compounds (bicarbonate, HCO ) 3  Organic molecules (contain carbon) o Four primary categories:  Carbohydrates  Lipids/fats  Proteins  Nucleic acids o Monomer- single molecular unit of a polymer o Polymer- contains many repeating molecular units (the monomers) o Carbs  Important functions  Energy source o Immediate energy source (in form of glucose) o Stored energy (can be stored in form of glucose as well)  Carb monomers  Glucose (direct energy source) and fructose (can be made into glucose, but extra steps; comes from fruit; important in moderation and through fruits; not good in high-fructose corn syrup)  Carb polymers (of glucose monomers)  Starch- found in plants (how plants store glucose)  Cellulose- found in plants (makes up structure of plants; cell walls; our body’s don’t break down cellulose well; not good source of energy)  Glycogen- found in animals (form of storage of glucose; commonly stored in muscles for easy access of direct energy) o Lipids  3 main types  Triglycerides  Phospholipids  Steroids  Triglycerides- structure of 3 repeating structures (the polymer)  Consist of fatty acids (3) (the monomer) o Primarily function as energy storage o And insulation (temp/organs) o What we think of as fat  3 fatty acids are connected by glycerol  All single bonds o Different bonds present in different types of triglycerides o Saturated and unsaturated fatty acids  Saturated v. unsaturated- depends on amount of hydrogen  Single bond- completely saturated w/hydrogen o Double bond (anything more than single)- break a bond and add hydrogen; unsaturated- ability to add hydrogen o Unsaturated- contain megafatty acids (humans can’t make them, have to consume them)  Phospholipids- cell/organelle membranes  Consist of fatty acids, phosphate group, and glycerol  Glycerol- backbone that holds everything together  Difference from triglycerides- 2 fatty acids + 1 phosphate group (just look for P)  Can interact w/water; at the same time is propelled by water  Hydrophilic- phosphate group (attracted to water) (has – charge)  Hydrophobic- fatty acid chains (fear water) (neutral charge)  Steroids- found in membranes and as hormones  Proteins- polymers of amino acid monomers o Control multiple reactions to help maintain homeostasis o Primary structure- sequence of amino acids  Fold to make final protein shape o Enzymes- important for physiological processes  Nucleic acids o Function in…  Energy transport (ATP)  Hereditary (DNA)  Protein syntheses (RNA) o ATP- monomer consisting of adenine, a sugar, and 3 phosphate groups o DNA- polymer consisting of 4 different nucleotides (monomers)  Adenine, thymine, guanine, cytosine  A with T  G with C o Gene expression- process of making proteins from our DNA  Within DNA, nucleotides are arranged into genes  Transcription- makes a working copy of the gene (to get RNA) (in nucleus)  Translation- translate nucleotides to amino acids (take the working copy and make it into protein) (in ER)  Cellular structure- composed of organelles o Cytoplasm- fluid inside cell  Where many chemical reactions take place  Ex. Cellular respiration o Nucleus- where DNA is o Endoplasmic reticulum- membrane  Where translation takes place  Via ribosomes (organelles made of proteins and RNA) o Golgi bodies- stacks of membranes  Where packaging of proteins for transport into vesicles takes place o Mitochondria- ATP production  Cell respiration  Contain small circular piece of DNA o Cytoskeleton- network of proteins in cytoplasm  Structural support  Tracks for transport of vesicle  Muscle function  Actin allows for muscle contraction o Plasma membrane- made of phospholipids and cholesterol w/membrane proteins  Bilayer is hydrophobic and hydrophilic due to lipids  Selectively permeable  Membrane proteins control what enters and exits Phosphate cell Hydrocarbon tails (fatty acids)  Very little H2O in center, if any (why membrane is semi permeable  Only things that can pass through without any help: very small, uncharged (AKA hydrophobic/non-polar)  Transport of molecules across a membrane  Passive- doesn’t require energy o Ex. Diffusion o Requires concentration gradient (movement of particles from high to low concentration)  Simple diffusion- molecule can travel through the membrane (small and uncharged)  Channel-mediated diffusion- protein creates a channel in the membrane for a molecule to travel through (can be larger and have a charge)  Gated channel or non-gated channel (AKA leak channels OR open all the time)  Carrier-mediated transport: facilitated diffusion  Carrier proteins- move solutes down concentration gradient  Solute (or molecule) must bind to the membrane protein  Protein changes shape and moves molecule across membrane  Active- requires energy (usually ATP) o Carrier-mediated transport o Pumps- membrane proteins involved  Require ATP hydrolysis to function  Ex. Na /K pump  Both molecules are being pumped up their gradient o Molecules “up their gradient” (low  high)  Creates stockpile, huge gradient  Osmosis- diffusion of water across a membrane o Membrane is partially permeable (only permeable to H O2 o Depends on how much “stuff” is dissolved in the water o Water diffuses from where IT is highly concentrated (dilute solute) to where IT is lowly concentrated (concentrated solute) o Always think “Where is the water going?”  Water goes to where it is needed  “Where is H O2high? Where is H O 2 low?  If it’s low outside and high inside, it moves out of the cell (high  low) o Hypertonic (more solute)- if A is hypertonic to B, A has more solute than B  The solution is hypertonic to the cell) o Hypotonic (less solute)- the cell is hypotonic to the solution o Isotonic (the same)- the solutes are the same in both solutions


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