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BIO 1010 week 1 notes

by: AJ Ponte

BIO 1010 week 1 notes BIO_SC 1010 - 01

AJ Ponte
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These notes cover units 1 and 2, properties of life and water.
General Principles and Concepts of Biology
Class Notes




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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by AJ Ponte on Thursday January 21, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIO_SC 1010 - 01 at University of Missouri - Columbia taught by Staff in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 45 views. For similar materials see General Principles and Concepts of Biology in Biological Sciences at University of Missouri - Columbia.

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Date Created: 01/21/16
Week 1 BIO 1010 Notes Unit 1 Interesting Concepts:  The smallest unit of a life is a cell o No single part of a cell is living  All living things contain DNA o DNA is an information molecule that is non-living o Viruses contain DNA but are themselves considered non-living Properties of Life: 1. Living things are organized 2. Living things acquire materials and energy 3. Living things maintain homeostasis 4. Living things respond to stimuli 5. Living things reproduce and develop 6. Living things have adaptations Two additional properties of life: 1. Living organisms, on this planet, are connected to and influenced by other living organisms, life does not exist in a vacuum 2. Life is diverse Three domains of life: 1. Bacteria 2. Archaea 3. Eukarya  four kingdoms: 1. Protists 2. Fungi 3. Plant 4. Animal Vocab terms:  Unicellular- a living organism that is composed of one cell capable of surviving on its own  Multicellular- many cells that collectively form an organism. Any one of these cells is incapable of surviving on its own  Energy- a property of objects which can be transferred to other objects or converted into different forms, but cannot be created or destroyed  Metabolism- the set of life sustaining chemical reactions within living cells. Includes the storage and consumption of energy Week 1 BIO 1010 Notes  Homeostasis- property of a system in which variables are regulated so that internal condition remain stable and relatively constant i.e. regulation of body temperature, blood sugar and pH  Behavior- the internally coordinated responses of living organisms to internal and or external stimuli  Reproduction- the biological process by which new individual organisms are produced from their “parents”  Development- process of regulated growth and differentiation of cells and tissues  Ecosystem- all organisms in a given area, along with the nonliving (abiotic) factors with which they interact o Two main processes: recycling of chemical nutrients and flow of energy  Adaptation- a trait of an organism that is maintained and evolved by means of natural selection  Prokaryotic cells- a type of cell lacking a nucleus and other organelles. Found only in the domains Bacteria and Archaea  Eukaryotic cells- a type of cell that has a nucleus and other organelles Unit 2 Matter:  Liquid, solid, gas, plasma (a gas with a charge)  Matter is anything that has mass and occupies space Atoms:  Atomic number- number of protons in an atom determines which element it is  Mass number- the sum of the number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus of an atom  Atomic symbol- code for a chemical element  Isotope- variant of a chemical element which differs in neutron number but has the same number of protons  Electrically neutral atom- the overall charge of the atom is zero  Valence shell- the outermost shell of an atom determines how the atom behaves in a chemical reaction  Octet rule- states that atoms tend to combine in such a way that each atom has eight electrons in its valence shell (outer shell) Compounds and molecules:  Molecule- an electrically neutral group of two or more atoms held together by chemical bonds Week 1 BIO 1010 Notes  Compound- a pure chemical substance consisting of two or more different chemical elements that can be separated into simpler substances  Formula- a way of expressing information about the proportions of atoms that constitute a particular chemical compound Chemical bonds:  Ionic bond- a type of chemical bond that involves the attraction between oppositely charged ions. An ion is a molecule in which the total number of elections is not equal to the total number of protons  Covalent bonds- a chemical bond that involves the SHARING of electron pairs between atoms o Nonpolar covalent bond- electrical charge is shared equal amounts o Polar covalent bond- the electron shared in these covalent bonds spend a greater amount of time around a particular atom in the molecule, thus creating charge difference  Hydrogen bonds- the attractive force between the hydrogen attached to an electronegative atom of one molecule and an electronegative atom of a different molecule. This bond is weaker than polar or ionic, but strong collectively Properties of water: 1. Water has a high heat capacity a. Heat capacity is a measurable physical quantity equal to the ration of heat added to or removed from an object to the resulting temperature change b. Water has the second highest heat capacity in the universe c. Water regulates the global climate 2. Water is a good solvent a. Water pulls on the electronegative ends of ionic or polar compounds which in turn breaks those bonds b. Hydrophilic- water loving molecules, dissolves in water c. Hydrophobic- water fearing molecules, do not dissolve in water d. Solute- a substance that is dissolved in a liquid to form a solution e. Solvent- the dissolving agent in a solution (water is most versatile) f. Solution- a liquid consisting of a mixture of two or more substances, a solvent and solute 3. Water molecules are cohesive and adhesive a. Cohesion- the property of water to stick to itself b. Adhesion- the tendency of dissimilar particles to cling to one another c. Surface tension- the elastic tendency of liquids which makes them acquire the least surface area possible 4. Ice is less dense than liquid water Week 1 BIO 1010 Notes a. As liquid water cools it becomes denser until it reaches its maximum density at 4 degrees Celsius b. If the temperature drops lower ice forms which is 9% LESS dense than water at 4 degrees Celsius Acids and bases:  Acids- substances that give up protons during chemical reactions  Bases- Substances that acquire protons during a chemical reaction  pH- the measure of protons in a solution


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