CRJU 3200: Crime Prevention and Security, week 2 notes
CRJU 3200: Crime Prevention and Security, week 2 notes Crju 3200
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alison Carr on Thursday January 21, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Crju 3200 at Bowling Green State University taught by Dr. Lab in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 19 views. For similar materials see Crime Prevention and Security in Criminal Justice at Bowling Green State University.
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Date Created: 01/21/16
CRJU 3200: Crime Prevention and Security-Spring Semester 2016 Week 2 Many years ago, crime prevention was up to the victimized individual Obligatory policing- your obligation to get involved in policing around and yourself o The only form of law enforcement at the time was the army, and they would the police the King/Queen at the time o There were no set rules or laws at this time o Protecting yourself was up to you Hue and cry- if the people who watched over the town saw someone who was being victimized, they would raise the alarm and call for help Watch and ward- men would volunteer and rotate in and out to watch over the town and the townspeople, usually at night o Completely voluntary Assize of arms- if you could afford one, it was your responsibility to have and use a weapon if something came up (robbed, beaten, etc.) o True up until the 1800s Metropolitan police- first modern police force for citizens o Created in 1829 in London by Sir Robert Peel o Primary role: crime prevention Reality: did not prevent, but was more of a reactive type of policing Protection tactics in old cities- walls, moats, drawbridges People would first burglarize banks because the people did not have anything worth stealing o Banks developed safes and vaults as a form of crime prevention o Now people go in during the day and rob them so they don’t have to deal with the safes and vaults Crime prevention is an old idea, we just modernize it In the definition of crime, it must include fear of crime and perceptions o Why do you lock your doors if you’ve never been burglarized? Crime prevention- any action designed to reduce the actual level of crime and/or the perceived fear of crime Preventable crimes: o Property crimes o You are able to put things in order to stop the crime o Ex: identity theft (chips in credit cards) Unpreventable crimes: o More unpreventable crimes than there are preventable crimes o Ex: crimes of passion In the spur of the moment They come out of personal relationships Crime prevention doesn’t talk about the problems in the criminal justice system o Includes many people Police (can give data to you) People in the criminal justice system Treatment programs Architects Courts Lawyers Legislature (gives out funds and resources) Biologists, doctors, psychiatrists, psychologists, sociologists Security Crime prevention model: Public Health Paradigm Primary Secondary Tertiary -identifies disease- -identifies -identifies individuals creating conditions and groups/individuals with with advanced disease tries to get rid of them high risk and to and intervene to -there is no problem intervene prevent death or yet, but there might be early diagnosis- case permanent disabilities one later finding, screening, rehabilitation- health promotion- selective exams retraining, community health education, disability limitation- placement and support nutrition, genetics, treatment for advanced Also for people periodic exams diseases who had the specific protection- In the area disease, then personal hygiene, Ex: plague was cured, and vaccines, People with a now they’re environmental higher risk trying to keep it sanitation, job safety from coming engineering back Crime prevention model: Criminology Paradigm Primary Secondary Tertiary -identifies conditions of -engages in early -deals with actual the physical & social identification of offenders and involves environment that potential offenders and intervention in such a provide opportunities seeks to intervene fashion that they will for or precipitate Early not commit further criminal acts identification crimes Environmental Pre-delinquent reform- community design screening; treatment General social & prevent adult rehab- training, physical well crimes surveillance incapacitation being Individual Crime prevention intervention Deals with education Neighborhood recidivism and programs how to get rid of recidivism Criminal justice system spend the most time with tertiary prevention Who can help with crime prevention? o Private citizens, schools, businesses, planners, religions and social agencies, police, courts, and corrections Who else deals with primary and secondary prevention? o The entire society besides the criminal justice system Crime Prevention Models (continued) Van Dijk and de Waard (1991) o Made specifications to earlier models Primary Secondary Tertiary Victim oriented o X o X o Community/ o X o X o neighborhood oriented Offender orientedo o o X Crawford Primary Secondary Tertiary Social o X o X o prevention (ex: neighborhood watch) Situational o o X o prevention (targeting high risk events/ situations) Hunter o Micro level- things that are done at a small level Locations, individuals, focusing on one thing o Meso level- a bit larger area than micro level Small neighborhoods, groups of individuals Making small changes o Macro level- make huge changes Societal based Cities, communities, societies Tonry and Farrington o Developmental prevention- recognizing that crime does no come out of no where, it comes from a long term process Something happens over time and interrupts normal developmental habits Ex: mother using drugs while pregnant Based on sociological and psychological ideas that have been around for a long time o Community prevention- design (social and physical) and how it operates Categorized under situational prevention o Criminal justice prevention- includes police, courts, corrections, etc. and what each does Bjørgo (2013, based on organized crime) 1. Establishing and maintaining normative barriers a. Expected behaviors, setting rules and guidelines 2. Reducing recruitment to criminal activity a. Ex: gangs 3. Deterrence a. Deterring people from breaking the laws by showing what will happen if you do break the law (ex: jail) 4. Disrupting acts before they occur a. Knowing the criminal is thinking about breaking the law and intervene to change that 5. Protecting targets a. Ex: people, property, things b. Using alarms, locks, etc. 6. Reducing the level of harm from crime a. The impact on the victim will not be so great, but they will still be victimized 7. Reducing the rewards of crime a. The offender doesn’t get as much from committing the crime b. Ex: smart guns- only allowing 1 person to shoot the gun by fingerprint, so criminals will get nothing out of stealing it 8. Incapacitation a. Categorized under tertiary prevention b. Locking you up so you will not offend again 9. Desistance and rehabilitation a. Categorized under tertiary prevention b. Don’t do crime, and go through rehab Gloria Laycock Crime science o Big in Europe and United Kingdom, but does show up in the U.S. o Says we shouldn’t and can’t approach social crimes/discipline from just using sociology and psychology o We should include all factors in the approach: political science, biologists, architects, artists, businesses, landscaping, etc. Ex: creating a chair to make it hard to snatch purses in public Architects and artists design property that is tough to steal Design things that work better Evaluation Process evaluation- looking at the way a program is run, what took place? o Ex: neighborhood watch group How was it set up? Were there any rule/regulations? Were there meetings? What was discussed at the meetings? What did you implement? o Fidelity- how well did you do what you said you’d do? How well did you implement it? Focused on the set up of the program o Gives you a description of the program Money spent and money saved What were the leaders like? What type of people were included? o Most of criminal justice uses process evaluation Impact/outcome evaluation- did the program accomplish what you said it would accomplish? o Did it work? o Did you change the outcome? Ex: did you reduce crime? Cost-benefit evaluation- how much does it cost/take to run the program? o Process evaluations and impact/outcome evaluations are used for a cost-benefit evaluation o It’s hard to monitor the cost o It’s hard to monetize the benefits o We don’t use cost-benefit evaluation very much Issues in crime prevention evaluations: o We run the program, then use an evaluation after it has started o We need to set up an evaluation the same time as the program is set up o A program is set up because an immediate problem has come apparent, then we want to see if it works and have to back track to see if it did which is hard o You can’t always control things: you cannot isolate a community to have one community have neighborhood watch and the other not have a watch. o Need to evaluate all outside influences (competing influences), which you cannot do o There are no neighborhood boundaries o Follow-up periods We are not good at setting follow-up periods Is there a temporary change or a long term change? 1 year may not be long enough to see change it takes some time for things to have an impact poor conceptualization no rationale is there a theory? Should this particular thing happen? Why didn’t it work? Why should it have worked? Usually theories can answer the reasons why something did not work
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