Jan. 21, 2016 Notes
Jan. 21, 2016 Notes BIOL 11100 - Fundamentals of Biology II
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BIOL 11100 - Fundamentals of Biology II
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Phoebe Notetaker on Thursday January 21, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 11100 - Fundamentals of Biology II at Purdue University taught by Dr. Athena Anderson in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 19 views. For similar materials see Biology in Science at Purdue University.
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Date Created: 01/21/16
1/21/16 Meiosis II Meiosis II • Same steps as mitosis but chromosomes have been through crossing over. • End product is four haploid cells, instead of the two that result from meiosis I. Prophase II • Chromatin re-condenses into chromosomes. o At the end of meiosis I, chromosomes unwind into chromatin and then in prophase II it recondenses. Inefficient? Evolution doesn’t do things to be perfect, it just does what it does. • Nuclear envelope starts to break down. • Spindle fibers start to form. • Chromosomes have two chromatids attached at the centromere. • Distinguished from prophase I by lack of tetrads and from prophase by evidence of crossing over. • Metaphase II • Chromosomes aligned on metaphase plate. • Each chromatid faces the opposite pole. • Spindle fibers attached at centromere. • Distinguished from metaphase II by lack of tetrads, and from metaphase I by evidence of crossing over. • Anaphase II • Spindle fibers are pulling chromatids apart [sister chromatids are separated] and toward opposite poles. • Distinguished from anaphase I by single chromatid, and from anaphase by evidence by evidence of crossing over. • Telophase II & Cytokinesis • Nuclear envelope reforms. • Chromatids start to decondense into chromatin. • At cytokinesis, each daughter cell from me iosis I splits into two. • Each new daughter cell is haploid, this time with no sister chromatids. • Each new daughter cell is unique [different from others and from parent cell]. • 4 haploid cells are the result of meiosis. • Spermatogenesis: Formation of sperm, occurs in testes. • The acrosome on the tip of the head of sperm, contains enzymes to make a hole in the egg. • The midsection is full of mitochondria. • One sperm is one cell. • • Oogenesis • Formation of ova (eggs) → More complicated than spermatogenesis. • Every division results in a tiny, useless cell called a polar body. • Only one egg is actually made from oogenesis. • You end up with one that’s bigger and functional and a few little polar bodies that are “just there.” • The polar bodies are reabsorbed/recycled. • REVIEW & be familiar with the differences!
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