×

### Let's log you in.

or

Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!

×

or

1 review
by: Linda Davila

18

2

4

# Math 1040, Chapter 1 MATH 1040

Linda Davila
SUU
GPA 3.8

Enter your email below and we will instantly email you these Notes for Statistics

(Limited time offer)

Unlock FREE Class Notes

Everyone needs better class notes. Enter your email and we will send you notes for this class for free.

These notes cover all of chapter 1. It is mainly vocabulary because that's what this chapter is all about. Enjoy!
COURSE
Statistics
PROF.
Derek Hein
TYPE
Class Notes
PAGES
4
WORDS
CONCEPTS
Math, Math 1040, Statistics
KARMA
Free

## 2

1 review
"If Linda isn't already a tutor, they should be. Haven't had any of this stuff explained to me as clearly as this was. I appreciate the help!"
Jeffry Schamberger DDS

## Popular in Mathematics (M)

This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Linda Davila on Thursday January 21, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to MATH 1040 at Southern Utah University taught by Derek Hein in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 18 views. For similar materials see Statistics in Mathematics (M) at Southern Utah University.

×

## Reviews for Math 1040, Chapter 1

If Linda isn't already a tutor, they should be. Haven't had any of this stuff explained to me as clearly as this was. I appreciate the help!

-Jeffry Schamberger DDS

×

×

### What is Karma?

#### You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 01/21/16
Math 1014 Statistics Chapter One   Branches of Statistics o Descriptive­ Gathers, sorts, summarizes, and displays the data o Inferential­ Involves using descriptive statistics to estimate population parameters  Section 1.2 Data Classification o Types of Data  Qualitative­ consist of labels or descriptions of traits.  Quantitative­ consist of counts or measurements.  Continuous­ quantitative data that can take on any value in a given  interval and are usually measurements.  Discrete­ quantitative data that can take on only particular values  and are usually counts. o Ex. 1, 2, 3 not 1.5, 2.5, 3.5 (when using years people were  born for example someone cannot be born year 1997.5 but  can be born the year 1997)  Neither­ data that is qualitative but is not numerical. o Levels or Measurement  Nominal­ data at the nominal level of measurement are qualitative data  consisting of labels or names.  Ordinal­ data at this level or measurement are qualitative data that can be  arranged in a meaningful order, but calculations do not make sense.  Interval level­ data is quantitative that can be arranged in a meaningful  order. Differences between data entries are meaningful. Calculations such  as addition and subtraction make sense. Zero is a possibility and is just  another number on the scale for instance.  Ratio level­ measurements are quantitative data that can be ordered in a  meaningful matter. Differences between data entries are meaningful.  Calculations such as addition, subtraction, multiplication and division  make sense. Zero is not possible, in this case zero is the absence or  something.  Counts tend to be at this level  Ex. Finishing times of a race: Quantitative (because it is dealing  with numbers), Continuous (because any value is possible), and  Ratio (because all types of calculations are possible and make  sense)  Section 1.3 The Process of a Statistics Study o Conducting a Statistics Study  Determine the design of the study  A. State the questions  B. Determine the population and variables  C. Determine the sampling method  Collect data  Organize data  Analyze the data to answer the question o Statistics study  Observational study­ data that already exists. Conclusions can be obtained  just by observing.  Experimental study­ experiment generates data to help identify cause and  effect relationships. o Observational Studies  Representative sample  A representative sample has the same relevant characteristics as  the population and does not favor one group.  A random sample is one where each member has an equal chance  of being selected. o Sampling methods  Simple random sampling­ each possible sample of the same size has the  same chance of being selected.  To calculate on a calculator: o randInt(#,#)=  Stratified sample­ each stratum within your sample get sampled from.   Needs a little from each chunk  Cluster sampling­ needs to collects all data from a few chunks.  Makes most sense when geographically convenient  Systematic sample­ takes every (regularly chosen) subject. Must be  determined with a random starting point.  Ex. At a factory with random inspection on the lines, one way  choose a random starting point to inspect the product; however,  after that they much chose a certain number for every other time  they will inspect and will check only that certain time, like the  inspector will check the product every 15  time and will stick to  that system.  Convenient sampling­ not a reliable way of sampling and collecting data.  We must never use this type of sampling! Always resorts in a biased  sample! o Types of Observational Studies  Cross sectional study­ data are collected at a single point in time. Think of  it as a snap shot.  Longitudinal study­ data are gathered by following a particular group over a period of time.  Meta­analysis­ a study that compiles information from previous studies.  Case study­ looks at multiple variables that affect a single event. o Experiments  Treatment­ some condition that is applied to a group of subjects in an  experiment.  Subjects­ people or things being studied in an experiment.  Participants­ people that are being studied.  Response variable­ the variable in an experiment that responds to the  treatment.  Explanatory variable­ a variable in an experiment that causes the change  in the response variable.  Confounding variables­ these are factors other than the treatment that  cause an effect on the subjects of an experiment.  Control group­ a group of subjects to which no treatment is applied in an  experiment. Or in most cases, this is the group that is given the placebo  (see below).  Treatment group­ subjects to which researchers apply treatment.  Principles of experimental design  Randomize the control and treatment group  Control for outside effects on the response variable  Replicate the experiment a significant number of times to see  meaningful patterns  Placebo Effect­ this is a response to the power of suggestion, rather than  the treatment itself, by participants of an experiment.  Placebo­ a substance that appears identical to the actual treatment but  contains no intrinsic beneficial elements.   Single Blind Experiment­ when subjects of an experiment aren’t aware  which group they were placed in.  Double Blind Experiment­ when neither the subjects nor the people  interacting with them are aware of which group is which.  Institutional Review Board  Institutional Review Board is a group of people who review the  design of a study.  Informed consent­ involves completely disclosing to participants  the goals.  Section 1.4 How to Critique a Published Study o Consider the Set­up  Bias­ favoring of a certain outcome in a study.  Sampling bias­ occurs when the sample chosen does not accurately  represent the population being studied.  Drop outs­ participants who begin the study but fail to complete.  Processing errors­ errors that occur simply from the data being processed,  such as typos when entering the data into a computer.  No adherents­ participants who remain in the study until the end but stray  from the directions they were given.  Researcher bias­ occurs when a researcher influences the result of a study.   Response bias­ occurs when a researcher’s behavior causes a participant to alter their response or give an inaccurate response.   Participation bias­ when there is a problem with either the participant­ or  lack thereof­ of those chosen for the study.  Non Response bias­ when there is a lack of participation in a self­selected  sample from certain segments of a population.   Ex. When students are asked to fill out a teacher evaluation and  some students don’t fill out the paper.

×

×

### BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

×

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

## Why people love StudySoup

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

#### "There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."

Janice Dongeun University of Washington

#### "I used the money I made selling my notes & study guides to pay for spring break in Olympia, Washington...which was Sweet!"

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

Forbes

#### "Their 'Elite Notetakers' are making over \$1,200/month in sales by creating high quality content that helps their classmates in a time of need."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!
×

### Refund Policy

#### STUDYSOUP CANCELLATION POLICY

All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email support@studysoup.com

#### STUDYSOUP REFUND POLICY

StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here: support@studysoup.com

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to support@studysoup.com