Class Note for PTYS 206 with Professor Yelle at UA
Class Note for PTYS 206 with Professor Yelle at UA
Popular in Course
Popular in Department
This 30 page Class Notes was uploaded by an elite notetaker on Friday February 6, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to a course at University of Arizona taught by a professor in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 20 views.
Reviews for Class Note for PTYS 206 with Professor Yelle at UA
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 02/06/15
What is Science Had we never seen the stars and the sun and the heaven none of the words which we have spoken about the Universe would ever have been uttered But now the sight of day and night and the months and the revolutions of the years have created number and have given us a conceptions of time and the power of enquiring about the nature of the Universe and from this source we have derived philosophy than which no greater good ever was or will be given by the gods to mortal man Plato 3608 NATS 2062 Spring 2008 Main Ideas in Today s Lecture 39 Why Study Science An attempt at a precise definition of Science What is not science 3608 NATS 2062 Spring 2008 nggg wwu Anya Egg 66E Q gc v Ag ch W95 m J 2 EWUEQ E M 9 wgm Sunday school in Bangkok Notice the concentration evident on the faces of most ofthe students finding truth is hard work 3608 NATS 2062 Spring 2008 Why Study Science 2 Know your world i Appreciate your world i Understand your world i Control your world 3608 NATS 2062 Spring 2008 quot Tm l ymg Ihl w mggj rm L d i e 391 VEUJCC QILE QWQ i I m l A Fw1j lm P8116 l gamma Tm Emca g 39 mmdr m m l y W m m mi pparr ram g Tim Shgmg fa Ky mcge M m m lmc NAT mmmm am imwgkag win W ammgrza m 1m mm mm a ma a i 651 f W13 gammy rem 4 171mm ROWE angmm a m ee nsi ma con dgtii a WAWZEM Am wgl l t g w t Styrlry mm U fA D ygqp ii a Q Mz maagg W mg rm 1nquotn waryrig 1 mew mh e l i my ye Science and Public Policy v Climate Change Evolution versus Creationi39sm i Stem Cell Research EtC An optimistic observer of modern culture would claim that intelligent and well informed citizens will need to make decisions on these issues A pessimistic observerquot of modern culture might think otherwise 3608 NATS 2062 Spring 2008 quot nail inf 313quot 39 Science literacy subscales combined science literacy scale identifying scienti c issues Explaining phenomena scienti cally llsing scienti c evidence luriedictiun Score lurisdictinn Score Jurisdiction Score Jurisdiction Score Pdand Denmark France Iceland United States Slovak Republic Spain Norway Ltnemtuourg Italy Portugal Grmce Turkey Mexico EIEGIJ average Czech Republic France Sweden lcdand Ien in a rk tl39ni ted States Norway Spain Portugal Poland Luiemhourg H ungan39 Slovak Republic Italy I3 necce Tu rliey Mexico Norway Spain Iceland United States Luxembourg France Italy Greece Portugal Turliej39 Mexico Czech Republic Hungary Sweden Poland Luxem tourg Iceland Denmark United States Spain o39tali Republic Norway Portugal Italy Greece Turkey Mexico Study College students iaek literacy for complex tasks Enter Ci 39 AL Fn dey January 2t 2005 Posted 423 pm EST 2129 GMT hullm l39m 5E WASHINGTON AP More than 39 half of students at fouryear 39 Comparg colleges and at least 75 percent t at twoyear colleges lack the M R marge literacyr to handle complex real ates life tasks such as understanding Fiefi na rice Home Eguity The literacy study funded by the Pew Home Purchase Charitable Trusts the rst to target the skills of graduating stu dents nds that students fail to lock in key skills no matter their elld of study credit card offers a study found 7 N ILIhEIT39 quot 1hi T 3608 NATS 2062 Spring 2008 A compilation of data on science literacy and education published recently by the federallyfunded National Science Foundation NSF suggests that Americans are likely to have serious misconceptions about the scientific process incorrect knowledge of scientific facts and strong beliefs in pseudoscientific theories 2 For instance only 45 of Americans surveyed knew that electrons are smaller than atoms and only 23 were able satisfactorily to explain what it means to engage in scientific study About one fourth of those surveyed professed to believe in astrology and about one third at Americans believe astrology to be sort of Scientific Quoted from quotThe Triple Helix NATS 2062 Spring 2008 Table 1 Bachelor s and Subbaccalaureate Engineering Computer Science and information Technology Degrees Awarded in the lUS China andl India in 2004 Degree Field United stetee India Chinae Total Bachelors and Subbaccalaureate Engineering Computer Science and Information Technology Degrees 222335 215000 644106 Number of Bachelors Degrees 13143 l39l2000 3539l537 in Engineering Excluding CS and Electrical 52520 lTDUD in C51 Electrical and IT 8491 051000 Number of Suhbaccalaureete Degrees 84898 103000 in Engineering 39552 57000 in CS and IT 45245 46000 From Framin the Enineerin Outsourcin Debate by Dr Gereffi and Vivek Wadhwa Duke Pratt Engineering School 3608 NATS 2062 Spring 2008 Observing and Experimenting Science attempts to explain nature Nature is probed with observation amp Experimentation Observations constitute the objective record of characteristics of nature Though experiments we establish a specific physical situation and observe the results In both cases abstraction is required because we focus only on a subset of specific characteristics and on small scale of the Universe 3608 NATS 2062 Spring 2008 Fi ndinjg Patterns his and recqrding 39i39s39 qt tofi39n39d a pattern39t at is and h o l dslh many I39r gumstame Science may be describe as 3th39eaia r c offsystemati crover simpification quot Karl Popper Karl Homer FhiI sup39henofvsci e ce Th togibqf c ieizti ovegy I squot 123139 Ramunarizuppawasmum n V39mnna un 2398 July an Hxsvnse sum amu destbackgruqnda quhem39 39 39 adufphlus ph6 l mums H15 xntgns 39degrg m ar manger fgalsxiym u uit Ems ugm igaa hxm tu cuhtnbptefu fthuugut encpmpassmg amungruthers pulihc Lheury quantum mepxq39angcs1ug5 scienusamemuagnq39gvgluganarygq r5 Looking for Patterns Science starts with the recognition of repeatable patterns in phenomenon The art of science lies in finding interesting patterns that tell us something about workings of overlapping cluttered phenomena in the Universe The best way to describe patterns is with equations because specific quantifiable predictions are made 3608 NATS 2062 Spring 2008 S gtm P at cgmg Em NEW ma P a b c gt de dumg com S l wjl mg mma 3917 Bob ButbCI39I39CLPkl39B13gti ngdi mag rm Mm b aa V Hawaii Eg W mcsgg m WEED 322 SQWWQ 26 mmmmmazmaman we mgamw a at gem mm Wax Elms tram an W2 am as may warm mm ame meaty Wm am 12 mam man a warm Em m Imam WM Mamabme m arm mm mm Waxy Gm Sims mm mm ah mm mm mm GM eman mum LEV am mammal games 115wa emam magma mm m mm m Hypotheses and Theories Observations andor experiments must be repeated and reproducible by other scientists The only useful hypotheses are those that are falsi able that is they make specific predictions that are testable and can be proven wrong lfthe predictions are wrong the theory is discarded The only truth in science the only authority that matters are observations and experiments Science does not rely upon belief or appeal to authority it relies upon testing Prejudice and preconceived notions are difficult to get rid of or even to be aware of Progress in science has often been the recognition and removal of incorrect assumptions 3608 NATS 2062 Spring 2008 Scientific Theories must be Falsifiable Karl Popper The Earth is at the center of the soarsystem This theory is incorrect but 39it i s falsifiable because it make specific predictions that can be tested to determine if the theory is correct Freudian Analysis is sometimes useful This maybe true but it is not falsifiable There is not experiment observation or test that can prove the theory false that Freudian analysis is never uSeful thus the theory is not falsifiable 3608 NATS 2062 Spring 2008 What is not Science 2 Astrology i Creationism i Belief in UFgt39Oquots i Psychic Phenomena The X Files i Almost anything you see on late night TV 3608 NATS 2062 Spring 2008 What is Creationism Creationism or creation theolo is the belief that humans E the Earth and the universe were created by a supreme beind or deitv39s supernatural intervention The intervention may be seen either as an act of creation from nothing ex nihio or the emergence of order from preexisting chaosMost who hold quotcreationquot beliefs consider such belief to be a part of religious m and compatible with or otherwise unaffected by scientific views while others maintain that scientific data supports creationism Proponents of theistic evolution may claim that understood scientific mechanisms are simply aspects of supreme creation Otherwise scienceoriented believers may consider the scriptural account of creation as simply a metaphorThose who hold literal creation views often reject views of science and certain scientific theories in particular Most notable is the rejection of evolution and its implications for current evolutionaLy biology While the general idea of natural selection may fit into various particular views the evolutionary concept of common descent Athat humans are quotdescended from lesser creaturesquot is a point of great issue with most creation believers Most creationists also dispute evolutionary theories about the origin of life origin of the human species the deoloqical historv of the Earth the formation of the solar system and the oridin of the physical universe Wikipedia 3608 NATS 2062 Spring 2008 Public Opinions on Evolution Opinions in USA Pew F Orum of Rel ijgi On and Public LifeAug ust 2005 Existecl in its present form since the beginning of time 42 Evolved overtime 48 Evolution guided by a supreme being 118 Don t know howlife evolved 4 Don t know 10 inin ionrs in Europe UN Planet Project Existed in its present ferm since the beginning of time 181 3608 NATS 2062 Spring 20138 ls Creationism Science Creationism is not falsifiable There are no observations or experiments which can prove it incorrect Creationism relies on an authority other than observation and experiment There is no pattern in nature that creationism attempts to explain It s intent is not knowledge of the natural world 3608 NATS 2062 Spring 2008 What is Intelligent Design The theory of intelligent design D holds that certain features of the univerSe and of living things are best explained by an intelligent cause rather than an undirected process such as natural selection ID is thus a scientific di sa greem entIWith the Core Claim of evolutionary theory that the apparent design of living systems is an illusion httpwww intell igentdesign network o rg Problems Not a theory on its own but a critiCism of evolution Generates no new hypothesis Cannot be tested Is not falsifiable T39hinly veiled reworking of creationism Creationism in a bad tuxedo 3608 NATS 206 2 Spring 2008 How do we determine if there is a scientific consensus on an issue 1 Consult Scientific Societies ie the National Academy of Sciences 2 Read the peerreviewed literature Scientists of all types publish their results as articles in professional journals To be published the article must be approved by an editor who is advised by 13 other scientists that are experts on the topic in ques on 3608 NATS 2062 Spring 2008 n Science and Creatignismi A View frgm the Natigna Academy at Sciences Secend Edition 1999 Whiie the mechanisms er evaigtign are stiii tinder nvestigatgn scientists universaiiy accept that the cesmgsi cur ipianeti and his eveived and centi niie ts evsiveg Yet the teaching at evsicitian ts schgcichilldren is stiii a contentietis issuer in Science and Creatiensmi the NAS states iinegdivncaiiy that creationism has n0 giace in any science curricuigm at any ieveii Brie y and cieariy this heoiciet expiores the nature at science reviews the evidence for the crigin or the universe and Earth and exgiains the current scientific understanding gr hieiggicai evgiiitieni This editign nciddes new insights from astrgnemy and moiectiiar h ioiogyi read FREE oniine FREE dewnigad htiijgfiimmmnegmedciRedwme dihtmii 3M3 NATQ ages Spring The Peerreviewed Literature There are approximately 9 papers on Intelligent Design in the peer reviewed literature This is less thanon e week s worth of published papers On bio0gical evolution MereOVer many of the 9 papers mentioned above only deal with the question in a peripheral way or are limited only to criticizing evolution rather than advancing another theory Remember the only relevant authorities in Scien39ceiare experiment and observation The nearly complete acceptance of39evolutic5na ry biology by the scientific cemmunity does not mean that it is correct However it is clear that it is incorrect t oay that there is a split in the scientific community over the question o ficreationismintelligent design There is very near universal agreement against cre39a39tioniSminte lli gent design 3608 NATS 2062 Spring 20138 ls Evolution Correct No scientific theory should be viewed as completely correct Remember a theory must be falsifiable and therefore subject to future improvements The theory of evolution is complex and multifaceted Some of it may be correct and some may require revision Changes to wellestablished theories usually incorporate and extend the successes of the earlier theories Changes are usually gradual not revolutionary though there are exceptions It is important to criticize evolution and advances will be made but this doesn t mean that the whole theory should be discarded A more sensible question is Is the evidence for evolution strong enough that we should be studying biology within this framework or should we discard it and find a different framework 3608 NATS 2062 Spring 2008 News Report on the Battle Over the Teaching of Evolution Kansas Board Approves Challenges to Evolution By JODI WIL39GO REN39 NYT 1 134 words P39ublishied NOvember 9 2005 CORRE CTIiON AP PEND ED The fiercely split Kansas Board of Education voted 639to 4 on Tuesday to adept new science standards that are the most 39farreaChin g in the natidn in challenging Darwin39s theory of evolution in the Classroom The standards move beyond the broad mandate for Critical analysis of evolution that four other states have established in reCent years by recommending that schools tea ch specific pointsi39th39at doubters of evolution use to undermine its primacy in science education 3608 NATS 206 2 Spring 2008
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'