Week One Notes: Enlightenment & Atlantic Revolutions
Week One Notes: Enlightenment & Atlantic Revolutions HIST 1020
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Becky Stinchcomb on Thursday January 21, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 1020 at Auburn University taught by Cari Casteel in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 82 views. For similar materials see World History II in History at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 01/21/16
Hist1020 Tuesday January 19, 2016 Middle of the 1700s THE ENLIGHTENMENT Voltaire’s Candide (cultivate our own garden ) John Locke Tabula rasa (Blank slate & experience) Infinite potential + Reason = Human progress OR Blank slate + Cultivating your garden = Enlightenment The Enlightenment becomes political…. this is the Age of Absolutism Natural Rights: 1. Life 2. Liberty 3. Property Everyone is born with these rights Spreading the Enlightenment Salons (like book clubs) Coffeehouses The rise of Newspapers The Limits of the Enlightenment Abolition (Jean Jacques Rousseau) Women’s Rights (Mary Wollstonecraft [1759 1797]) The Enlightenment Created a culture of questioning that will undermine the authority of European rulers The Atlantic Revolutions The American Revolution Seven Years War/ French and Indian War 1754 1763 $$$$$$$$$ (Expensive) Paying for the War Sugar Act (1764) sugar Stamp Act (1765) paper products Townshend Acts (1767) series of acts passed that taxed things The Last Straw Tea Act (1773) tax on tea Tar and Feathering Punishment by colonists because of anger about taxes Boston Tea Party (1773) dumping of tea to rebel against British government’s taxes The Shot Heard ‘Round the World! Lexington & Concord Thomas Paine Common Sense (1776) Declaration of Independence (1776) Treaty of Paris (1783) end of war 1788: French enlightened by American Revolution Hist1020 Thursday January 21, 2016 The Atlantic Revolutions II Louis XVI (17741792) Financial crisis (much like England) Seven Years War $$$$$$$$$$$$$$ The American Revolution The 3 Estates The First Estate Clergy The Second Estate Nobility The Third Estate Commoners The Estates General The only group that can change French tax law Last time they were called to meet, 1614 when absolutism was introduced Electing Representatives 17881789 Tax paying men 25 years or older were allowed to vote for their representatives 300 delegates for each Estate Unfair advantage because nobility and clergy have more equal representation than the commoners 3 estate is 97% of population with 88% of that being peasants Meeting of the EstatesGeneral: May 5, 1789 3 estate tries to hold separate meeting but are locked out by Louis XVI, so they find an indoor tennis court to hold their meetings Tennis Court Oath “We swear never to separate ourselves from the National Assembly, ad to reassemble whenever circumstances require, until the constitution of the realm is drawn up and fixed upon solid foundations.” Storming of the Bastille (July 14, 1789) Stealing weapons for the revolution “They are there to free the prisoners” –Official statement from National Assembly about the storming of the bastille Not against government, just want a constitution RECAPPPPPPPPPPPPPP Third Estate declared itself to be the National Assembly Louis XVI responded by locking the Third Estate out of the meeting The Third Estate relocated to a nearby tennis court where its members vowed to stay together and create a written constitution for France ?????? Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen (August 1789) Liberte, egalite, fraternite “Representatives of the French people, organized as a National Assembly, believing that the ignorance, neglect, or contempt of the rights of man are the sole cause of public calamities and of the corruption of governments, have determined to set forth in a solemn declaration the natural, unalienable, and sacred rights of man, in order that this declaration, being constantly before all the members of the Social body, shall remind them continually of their rights and duties” Women March to Versailles (October 1789) Thousands of women go to Versailles to confront Louis XVI because of a lack of food Mob orders King and family to move back to Paris and out of Versailles country home so that citizens can keep an eye on the King Royal family spent next several years in the Tuileres Palace as virtual prisoners Try to sneak out of France by dressing like Third Estate in hopes that no one will notice Louis and Marie Flee to Varennes (June 1791) Louis and Marie are recognized Face recognized from picture on coin and apprehended for trying to sneak out of country Louis caught trying to flee to Austria to put together an army to attack the people Trial of King Louis XVI (December 1792) High Treason After trial, Louis is only convicted by one individual vote Constitution 1791 Fulfillment of the Tennis Court Oath Limits power that King or any ruler of France has The National Assembly now becomes the Legislative Assembly with the power to create laws Execution of Louis XVI (January 1793) Guillotine Make a point to the public The end of French absolutism? (1793) The First French Republic (17921804) La Marseillaise—French national anthem The committee of Public Safety Created to cease an internal rebellion in 1793 Maximilien Robespierre (17581794) Get rid of people who don’t agree with ideas of French Revolution The Reign of Terror (July 1793 July 1794) Guillotine introduced for public execution Marie Antoinette first in line The Guillotine Intended as a more humane method of execution Thousands guillotined during the French Revolution Marie Tussaud’s Death Masks Ordered by French governing body to make wax masks of murdered Louis XVI & Marie Antoinette (also Maximilien Robespierre) The end of Robespierre… Sent to guillotine The Directory Balance of power 5 people controlling Doesn’t work Napoleon Bonaparte March into Paris Decide to take over since Directory failed so miserably Coup d’etat in 1799 Napoleon crowns himself emperor Meanwhile in Saint Dominque… About 90% slave, 10% white Europeans The importance of Saint Dominique In 1789, Saint Domininque produced: 60% of the world’s coffee 40% of the world’s sugar Code Noir (1685) A slave who struck his or her master, his wife, mistress or children would be executed Masters may chain and beat slaves but may not torture nor mutilate them Masters who killed their slaves would be punished Toussaint L’Ouverture (1743 1803) Haitian Revolution (1791 1804) The Creation of Haiti Not called Saint Dominique because that was name given by French, Haiti was what natives called it An Independent Haiti (January 1, 1804) 1 Black Republic in World st 1 Independent Nation in Latin America 2 Independent Nation in Western Hemisphere Battle of Vertieres Haitian Constitution (1805) Article 1: Haiti is free country Article 2: Slavery is forever abolished Article 3: Equality
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