New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Psyc 100

by: Kate Notetaker

Psyc 100 PSYCH 100

Kate Notetaker
GPA 3.6

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

In class notes
Introduction to psychological science
Class Notes
25 ?




Popular in Introduction to psychological science

Popular in Psychlogy

This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kate Notetaker on Thursday January 21, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYCH 100 at Ball State University taught by Biner in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 16 views. For similar materials see Introduction to psychological science in Psychlogy at Ball State University.

Similar to PSYCH 100 at BSU

Popular in Psychlogy


Reviews for Psyc 100


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 01/21/16
1-­‐21-­‐16     History  of  Psychology     • The  first  psychologists  adopted  the  Structuralist  Approach     • These  psychologists  wanted  to  describe  the  structure  of  the  mind  or  psyche.     • They  wanted  to  document  the  “contents  of  consciousness”     • Wilhelm  Wundt  is  most  strongly  associated  with  this  movement   o He  is  considered  the  father  of  psychology     o He  started  the  very  first  psychological  laboratory  in  1879.     • The  structuralists’  method  of  research  was  called:     o Introspection  (self-­‐examination)   • Subjects  would  simply  describe  what  they  were  thinking  and  feeling  under   certain  conditions     • This  focus  quickly  faded   • Next  approach  to  evolve…   The  Functional  Approach   • This  approach  stressed  not  what  was  happening  in  conscious  thought  but   rather…   o How  the  brain  worked  and  functioned     • A  lot  of  animal  research  was  conducted  to  determine  the  functions  of   different  parts  of  the  brain     • William  James  led  this  movement   • Approx  1910…   o Functionalism  was  thriving  in  the  US…  while  Gestalt  Psychology  (a   new  movement)  popped  up  in  Europe     o Gestalt  Psychologists  stressed  the  study  of  the  total  experience  of  the   individual     • Sigmund  Freud   o The  first  individual  to  develop  a  theory  of  mental  instability     o An  M.D.  living  in  Vienna,  Austria   o Developed  the  techniques  of  free  association  and  dream   interpretation  to  treat  “hysterical”  patients     o Called  his  new  treatment  psychoanalysis     § Focus  was  to  relive  the  unconscious  of  built-­‐up  pressures     • Behaviorism     o Head  of  behaviorist  movement  was  John  B.  Watson     § A  professor  at  John  Hopkins  University  in  Baltimore   o The  behaviorist  believed  the  psychologists  shouldn’t  even  try  to  study   the  mind   o They  argued  that  we  should  study  only  what  we  can  see  and  observe   (i.e.  behavior)   o Modern  day  psychology  is  rooted  in  the  principles  of  behaviorism     o That  is,  one  of  our  major  goals  today  is  to  study  measurable  behavior   and  attitudes       How  do  we  go  about  Studying  Psychology?       Theories     • Theory-­‐  a  formal  set  of  interrelated  propositions  concerning  a  phenomenon.   It  is  an  explanation  of  why  a  relationship  exists     o Key  word:  WHY   • If  we  know  why  a  relationship  exists,  we  can  then  predict  when  it  will   happen  again     • Prediction  makes  theory  a  very  powerful  concept     • We  all  construct  theories  of  behavior  every  day!     • We  are  all  psychological  theorists!     o Example:  you  notice  a  person  the  1  day  of  classes  and  you  decide  to   ask  him/her  out…and  they  turn  you  down.     o Why??  What  are  some  possible  theories?   1. You  have  rank  breath   2. You  have  BO   3. A  newly-­‐formed  large  zit  has  settled  on  your  nose   4. Your  new  haircut  looks  helmet-­‐like   5. He/she  is  an  ass   • Theory  #1.  How  do  you  test  this  theory?     1. Buy  mints   2. Ask  someone  else  out     • 2  possible  consequences   o The  person  goes  out  with  you  (you  support  your  theory)     o You  get  turned  down  again  (you  fail  to  support  your   theory)   • Note:  From  theories  we  deduce…   • Hypotheses:  Specific  predictions  based  on  theory     • Theory-­‐  people  avoid  people  with  horrible  breath   • Hypotheses:  If  I  don’t  use  a  breath  freshener,  no  one  will  go  out   with  me     What  makes  a  good  theory?   1. Be  logical     2. Be  parsimonious  (as  simple  as  possible)   3. Stimulate  new  research     4. Easily  lead  to  new  hypotheses     5. Be  testable  (relate  to  real-­‐world  observations)       Scientific  Method:   Facts(data)à  Theories(explanation)à  Hypotheses(predictions)à   Facts  (data)       • Methods  of  Research  (ways  we  test  our  theories)     o 1.  Controlled  Laboratory  Experiment     o   Prediction:  Nicotine  reduces  activity  level  (induces  relaxation)     • Get  30  rats,  split  into  3  groups  of  10   • Group  1:  inject  saline  (salt  solution,  no  nicotine)   • Group  2:  inject  6mg  of  nicotine     • Group  3L  inject  12mg  of  nicotine   o Nicotine  is  the  variable  we  manipulate-­‐  Independent  Variable  (IV)   o After  the  injections  place  each  rat  in  an  “Activity  Wheel”  for  1  hour     • It  records  the  number  of  wheel  revolutions  in  either  direction     • The  total  number  of  rotations  after  1  hour  is  our  measure  of   activity.  It’s  the  variable  we  measure;  Dependent  Variable  (DV)   o We  manipulate  the  IV  (nicotine)  to  see  if  it  affects  the  DV  (wheel   rotations)     o ALL  other  variables  (other  than  the  IV)  are  the  same  for  every  rat!  (ex.   Room  temp,  light,  noise,  etc.)   o Everything  is  said  to  be  “controlled  for”  (except  the  IV)   In  this  way,  we  can  make  “cause  and  effect’  statements   • If  the  wheel  rotations  differ  across  groups,  then  the  nicotine   must  have  caused  the  differences     o Why?     • Because  EVERYTHING  else  was  the  same  for  each  rat  except   the  nicotine  level!     2. Field  Experiment     o Similar  to  the  lab  experiment  but  taken  into  the  field  or  real  world     o Hypothesis  of  an  actual  study:  Personal  space  invasion  through   staring  causes  anxiety     o Method:  Man  on  a  bike  rides  up  to  an  intersection,  picks  out  a  car   stopped  at  the  light  and…   • He  either:   • Stares  at  the  driver   • Looks  down  at  the  pavement     • Is  this  the  IV  or  the  DV?   • The  measurement  of  anxiety  was  how  fast  the  car  (in   seconds)  went  through  the  intersection  when  the  light   turned  green  (used  a  stopwatch)     • DV   • They  recorded  the  number  of  seconds  for:     • 10  stare  cars  (and  calculated  the  mean)   • 10  no  stare  cars  (and  calculated  the  mean)   • Results:     • Average  seconds     o Stare:  2.2   o No  stare:  4.3     • Note  with  Field  Experiment     • Much  less  control  than  with  the  lab  experiment     • Results  relate  better  to  the  real  world  than  the  results  of   the  lab  experiment     3. Quasi-­‐Experiment     o Manipulation  is  not  controlled  by  the  scientist     o For  example,  one  study  examined:     • People’s  fear  of  being  diagnosed  with  schizophrenia  before  and   after  viewing  the  movie  “A  Beautiful  Mind”  (a  movie  depicting   the  life  of  a  schizophrenic  mathematician,  John  Nash).     o DV=ratings  of  1-­‐10  scale     o “How  afraid  are  you  of,  some  day,  being  diagnosed  with   schizophrenia?”   o Result:     • Mean  Fear  rating   • Before:  4.6     • After:  9.7   4. Correlation  or  Field  Study   o Not  an  experiment!   o No  manipulation  of  variables     o We  only  measure  variables     o Measure  2  variables  on  each  person  and  determine  if  the  variables  are   related     o For  example:  Is  height  related  to  leadership  ability?     o To  test:     • Get  100  people     • Measure  their  height   • Measure  leadership  ability  (with  a  test)   • Calculate  a  “correlation”  (between  the  2  variables)   • Correlation:  (r)  Measure  of  the  degree  of  linear   association  between  2  variables     o Range:  -­‐1  -­‐-­‐à  0  ß-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐  +1   • The  closer  the  r  is  to  either  1  or  -­‐1,  the  stronger  the   relationship  (or  linear  pattern)   o Statistics   • When  we  have  a  linear  relationship  between  two  variables,  we   can  usually  predict  someone’s  score  on  one  variable  from   knowledge  of  their  score  on  the  other  variable!     • Two  general  types  of  stats:     • Descriptive  Statistics:  describe  and  reduce  data     • Inferential  Statistics:  tests  we  perform  on  descriptive   statistics  (learn  more  in  higher  level  classes)            


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

25 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."

Anthony Lee UC Santa Barbara

"I bought an awesome study guide, which helped me get an A in my Math 34B class this quarter!"

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"

Parker Thompson 500 Startups

"It's a great way for students to improve their educational experience and it seemed like a product that everybody wants, so all the people participating are winning."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.