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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kate Notetaker on Thursday January 21, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYCH 100 at Ball State University taught by Biner in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 16 views. For similar materials see Introduction to psychological science in Psychlogy at Ball State University.
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Date Created: 01/21/16
1-‐21-‐16 History of Psychology • The first psychologists adopted the Structuralist Approach • These psychologists wanted to describe the structure of the mind or psyche. • They wanted to document the “contents of consciousness” • Wilhelm Wundt is most strongly associated with this movement o He is considered the father of psychology o He started the very first psychological laboratory in 1879. • The structuralists’ method of research was called: o Introspection (self-‐examination) • Subjects would simply describe what they were thinking and feeling under certain conditions • This focus quickly faded • Next approach to evolve… The Functional Approach • This approach stressed not what was happening in conscious thought but rather… o How the brain worked and functioned • A lot of animal research was conducted to determine the functions of different parts of the brain • William James led this movement • Approx 1910… o Functionalism was thriving in the US… while Gestalt Psychology (a new movement) popped up in Europe o Gestalt Psychologists stressed the study of the total experience of the individual • Sigmund Freud o The first individual to develop a theory of mental instability o An M.D. living in Vienna, Austria o Developed the techniques of free association and dream interpretation to treat “hysterical” patients o Called his new treatment psychoanalysis § Focus was to relive the unconscious of built-‐up pressures • Behaviorism o Head of behaviorist movement was John B. Watson § A professor at John Hopkins University in Baltimore o The behaviorist believed the psychologists shouldn’t even try to study the mind o They argued that we should study only what we can see and observe (i.e. behavior) o Modern day psychology is rooted in the principles of behaviorism o That is, one of our major goals today is to study measurable behavior and attitudes How do we go about Studying Psychology? Theories • Theory-‐ a formal set of interrelated propositions concerning a phenomenon. It is an explanation of why a relationship exists o Key word: WHY • If we know why a relationship exists, we can then predict when it will happen again • Prediction makes theory a very powerful concept • We all construct theories of behavior every day! • We are all psychological theorists! o Example: you notice a person the 1 day of classes and you decide to ask him/her out…and they turn you down. o Why?? What are some possible theories? 1. You have rank breath 2. You have BO 3. A newly-‐formed large zit has settled on your nose 4. Your new haircut looks helmet-‐like 5. He/she is an ass • Theory #1. How do you test this theory? 1. Buy mints 2. Ask someone else out • 2 possible consequences o The person goes out with you (you support your theory) o You get turned down again (you fail to support your theory) • Note: From theories we deduce… • Hypotheses: Specific predictions based on theory • Theory-‐ people avoid people with horrible breath • Hypotheses: If I don’t use a breath freshener, no one will go out with me What makes a good theory? 1. Be logical 2. Be parsimonious (as simple as possible) 3. Stimulate new research 4. Easily lead to new hypotheses 5. Be testable (relate to real-‐world observations) Scientific Method: Facts(data)à Theories(explanation)à Hypotheses(predictions)à Facts (data) • Methods of Research (ways we test our theories) o 1. Controlled Laboratory Experiment o Prediction: Nicotine reduces activity level (induces relaxation) • Get 30 rats, split into 3 groups of 10 • Group 1: inject saline (salt solution, no nicotine) • Group 2: inject 6mg of nicotine • Group 3L inject 12mg of nicotine o Nicotine is the variable we manipulate-‐ Independent Variable (IV) o After the injections place each rat in an “Activity Wheel” for 1 hour • It records the number of wheel revolutions in either direction • The total number of rotations after 1 hour is our measure of activity. It’s the variable we measure; Dependent Variable (DV) o We manipulate the IV (nicotine) to see if it affects the DV (wheel rotations) o ALL other variables (other than the IV) are the same for every rat! (ex. Room temp, light, noise, etc.) o Everything is said to be “controlled for” (except the IV) In this way, we can make “cause and effect’ statements • If the wheel rotations differ across groups, then the nicotine must have caused the differences o Why? • Because EVERYTHING else was the same for each rat except the nicotine level! 2. Field Experiment o Similar to the lab experiment but taken into the field or real world o Hypothesis of an actual study: Personal space invasion through staring causes anxiety o Method: Man on a bike rides up to an intersection, picks out a car stopped at the light and… • He either: • Stares at the driver • Looks down at the pavement • Is this the IV or the DV? • The measurement of anxiety was how fast the car (in seconds) went through the intersection when the light turned green (used a stopwatch) • DV • They recorded the number of seconds for: • 10 stare cars (and calculated the mean) • 10 no stare cars (and calculated the mean) • Results: • Average seconds o Stare: 2.2 o No stare: 4.3 • Note with Field Experiment • Much less control than with the lab experiment • Results relate better to the real world than the results of the lab experiment 3. Quasi-‐Experiment o Manipulation is not controlled by the scientist o For example, one study examined: • People’s fear of being diagnosed with schizophrenia before and after viewing the movie “A Beautiful Mind” (a movie depicting the life of a schizophrenic mathematician, John Nash). o DV=ratings of 1-‐10 scale o “How afraid are you of, some day, being diagnosed with schizophrenia?” o Result: • Mean Fear rating • Before: 4.6 • After: 9.7 4. Correlation or Field Study o Not an experiment! o No manipulation of variables o We only measure variables o Measure 2 variables on each person and determine if the variables are related o For example: Is height related to leadership ability? o To test: • Get 100 people • Measure their height • Measure leadership ability (with a test) • Calculate a “correlation” (between the 2 variables) • Correlation: (r) Measure of the degree of linear association between 2 variables o Range: -‐1 -‐-‐à 0 ß-‐-‐-‐-‐ +1 • The closer the r is to either 1 or -‐1, the stronger the relationship (or linear pattern) o Statistics • When we have a linear relationship between two variables, we can usually predict someone’s score on one variable from knowledge of their score on the other variable! • Two general types of stats: • Descriptive Statistics: describe and reduce data • Inferential Statistics: tests we perform on descriptive statistics (learn more in higher level classes)
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