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Week Two Notes

by: Grace Gibson

Week Two Notes 3330

Marketplace > Clemson University > Psychlogy > 3330 > Week Two Notes
Grace Gibson
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About this Document

These are just from lecture, nothing from the book.
Cognitive Psychology
Dr. Alley
Class Notes
25 ?




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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Grace Gibson on Thursday January 21, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 3330 at Clemson University taught by Dr. Alley in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 57 views. For similar materials see Cognitive Psychology in Psychlogy at Clemson University.


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Date Created: 01/21/16
Object & Pattern Recognition Problem: what do you see and where? Recognition is challenging due in part to the variations exhibited by objects in the real-world, such as: partial occlusions, viewpoint changes, varying illumination, cluttered backgrounds, and variation in the appearance of objects within a category. 2 Theories of Visual Object Recognition I. Template Matching Models – claim you compare a stimulus with a set of specific patterns (templates) in memory template @ miniature _____________ Problems: Ø Size matching: A = A ) Ø Orientation matching (alignment) Ø Configuration matching:(A = A =A = A = A = A = A) Ø memory load (huge # of templates required) Øin ______________ figures II. Feature Analysis Theory (also Feature Detection Theory) Steps: 1. Register sensory input 2. Detect features (lines and curves, open or closed) 3. Compare detected features to stored info. (memory) (the letter S has curved lines, straight line, etc…) 4. Decide on best match A. Evidence for Feature Detection - letters have distinctive features (see p. 40) every letter in the alphabet has a unique pattern of features that your brain can run through and recognize - confusion errors (e.g., C vs. G vs. H) this can account for the confusion errors people can make between two letters that have similar features we can predict the likelihood of the types of mistakes people are going to make - "feature detectors" in visual cortex some researchers were trying to figure out what the visual cortex was doing they discovered that there are neurons that detect features the only way to get them to respond is to show them a certain line or something that they recognize so the brain does have the wiring to recognize objects - results of some visual search tasks you can predict people’s performance nicely based on this theory in a set of letter sets, we don’t need to look at every letter in the set to know there isn’t a Q in it if you’re looking for a friend in a crowd, you don’t have to look closely at every face pieces of a visual display may not be adequate you may need to see the whole configuration (gestalt) 1. Complexity Effects: it’s easier to more accurate to see something when you’re looking at something more complex (look up this definition) · Word Superiority Effect - letters are identified more quickly and accurately when they appear as part of a word (your task is to identify an individual letter and you can speed up by presenting words you are familiar with) this tells us that we’re able to work on the processing of more than one letter at a time (we can parallel work on this whole pattern even though we’re focused on just one part of it) 2. Context Effects · Spatial context - other other things in the same area can affect what you see (13 can look like B when surrounded by A and C) ex.: {A 13 C} {12 13 14} Biederman's scrambled photo's · Perceptual Set - a readiness to perceive things in a certain way, usually due to expectations Illusory Contours - we can see a shape that isn’t actually there just because there are shapes building it surrounding it · Subjective Contour · misc. Gestalt (configuration) effects: e.g., perceptual organization (even though the features are all given to you, but something else about understanding how they go together to form different objects); figure/ground reversal (black and white, is it a vase or two faces looking at each other, M.C. Escher “Sky and Water”, ambiguous figures (if there’s an ambiguous figure, some people might see different things) for all these phenomena, markedly different percepts occur in response to the exact same features! holistic and top-down processing occur ATTENTION Key questions include: · What is attention? conscious, selective (we hear the teacher more than the laptops clicking, coughing, AC, etc…), limited · Can we attend to more than one thing at a time? … without changing how, or how well, we perform? (serial or parallel?) sd · What effect does attention have on perception? … on memory? · How and why is our capacity for attention limited? · Is attention like a spotlight? … a zoom lens? ... a shopper?  when we attend to something, it’s lit up and everything else is in the dark (spotlight metaphor)  the zooms lens metaphor is maybe better  these sort of spatial metaphors are common with attention  attention may be more like you pick objects to attend to (like a shopper) “the casual observer tends to think of visual selective attention as consisting of nothing more than fixations of the eye, and assumes that changes in attention are equivalent to eye movements.” (Pashler, 1999, p. 38) Benefits of Attention 1. Accuracy in perceptual judgments and actions  if you’re attending to something, your speed and accuracy will improve  think about driving a car  you are more likely to hit the brakes when needed if you are attending to the right region when you’re driving 2. Speed (of perception and reactions) e.g., __________________________ à speeded response 3. Memory: Conscious retrieval of memories some skills and information may be acquired without attention or awareness What gets your attention? we might look at what’s moving or what stands out attention shifting is often involuntary 1. Goal-Directed Selection (top-down; central) – deploy attention to specific objects or spatial regions.  “class, pay attention please”  it’s intentional  it’s pretty hard for someone to pay attention like this for the entirety of this hour long class à Voluntary and requires effort à Can have a relatively long duration. Required for vigilance (sustained attention in monitoring low-frequency events)(military guard is an example” à Featural distinctiveness (e.g., a triangle among a bunch of circles) helps. if we are trying to follow a football game, it is easy to follow someone specific if they’re the only ones wearing pink shoes today 2. Stimulus-Driven Capture ( bottom up; direct ) à Involuntary, rapid response; quickly dissipates. à Important factors: abrupt onset (but not offsets) of objects change (e.g., movement) Classic Research Methods & Findings A. Failure of Divided Attention (failures of people to be able to attend to two or more things simultaneously) 1. "Cocktail-party phenomenon": we have the ability to selectively attend to 1 conversation, but not to several at once. to follow two conversations, you have to attend to one then switch and attend to the other you’re likely to miss stuff if you do this 2. People listening to 1 story while reading another do not comprehend both(Mowbray, '53)  so what exactly happens if people are presented with two separate things at the same time?  led to the Dichotic Listening Technique (we listen to two sounds at once)  what happens to what they attend to and what happens to what they don’t attend to  they had people repeat exactly what they heard (shadowing) so we could see what they are attending to B. Shadowing of Dichotic Messages (Cherry, 1953; et al.) 1. Attended (shadowed) message (-) couldn't follow 1 of 2 messages presented to the same ear if presented with the same voice and loudness 2. ‘Unattended’ (unshadowed) message? (-) could report almost nothing about ‘rejected’ messages Ex. couldn't report word repeated up to 35x in the unattended mess(Moray, 1959) (+)did notice if sex of speaker changed, or if voice was replaced by a mechanical sound in middle of message (-) didn't notice language changes like English to German (+) often notice name in unattended message. Theories of Selective Attention I. Filter (Bottleneck) Theories of Attention: assume limited capacity ‘CPU’ if you unscrew a bottle upside down, all the water doesn’t come pouring out at once we have a limited capacity to process (CPU) Early-Selection Models - sensory inputs are selected on the basis of physical properties such as ear, loudness or pitch. (Broadbent) we can readily detect the physical properties of these messages so we can block everything out except the one that has the right physical properties Problems: 1. How do we switch "channels" if we're unaware of the content (meaning) of unattended inputs? (e.g., we may hear our name in a conversation we’re ‘ignoring’) we do switch our attention from one thing to another so we must have some idea of another message 2. Words in an unattended messages can intrude on shadowed message if they fit. (Gray & Wedderburn, 1960; Treisman, 1960) there are some studies that say we can pick up on some things in an unattended message Gray and Wedderburn were grad students who doubted Broadbent Ex. going to the Left: …sitting at the mahogany three possibilities… going to the right : let us look at these table with her head… mahogany sounds like possibility what they found is that people would shift over to the unattended message how could you know to do that if we aren’t attending to the message? many newer theories propose that we notice stuff going on outside our attention II. Neisser’s 2-stage model of attention (1967) – like all contemporary models, proposed that attention/perception involves both [1] preattentive (rapid & parallel) processes (we can only really follow one message, but we can do some processing more messages without really paying attention) and [2] attentive (controlled & serial) processes(voluntary and we can only direct the attentive part to one thing at a time) III. Feature Integration Theory (Treisman) – a current theory of attention and pattern recognition that involves 2 successive processes: 1. Feature Detection (“Distributed Attention”; Preattentive processing) - an automatic and rapid parallel process of detecting features - certain features (color; orientation) are more salient than others - supports “global attention” whereby we can segregate scenes into discrete areas, select targets for later ID, and monitor for salient and unexpected events doesn’t really required attention because it’s preattentive processing this helps us know where to go as we shift our attention from one thing to another 2. Focused Attention (Feature Integration) · Required to identify objects and correctly detect combinations of features · requires serial processing and (therefore) time (e.g., conjunctive searches are serial) · can be influenced by stored knowledge (e.g., bananas are yellow) we can do some preattentive processing but we will only know which features go together if we really pay attention how do we know if it’s an apple or an orange? just knowing something is orange or something is round does not mean it is an orange we have to integrate these features if we just need preattentive processing, we can find something quickly (“find the orange thing”) but a conjunctive search means we are looking for something with two or more features (find something orange and round) THESE ARE MORE THEORIES. START HERE. A) “pop-out” research - targets that differ from surrounding distractors by a single dimension (e.g., color; orientation; direction of lighting; closure) are spotted effortlessly & detection time does not depend on # of distractors. (vs. conjunctive searches featural searches: as we increase the number of objects, the reaction time does not go up conjunctive searches: as we increase the number of objects, the reaction time does go up B) illusory conjunction (“binding problem”) result of insufficient attention someone mistakenly think that two things go together that don’t actually go together this theory proposes that there is a binding problem in perception and cognition that says we see several things but without focusing on them completely we don’t know which of them go together so we put two things together that don’t actually go together a brief display XYZ may lead to a report of X or Z a result of insufficient attention; focused attention is required to bind together an object’s features illusory conjunctions can reflect top-down processing (e.g. see what you expect to see)


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