Vocab for ANTH 276 at UA
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Date Created: 02/06/15
ANTH276 INTRODUCTION TO LINGUISTIC ANTHROPOLOGY THE NATURE OF LANGUAGE Handout 3 Communicative Competence Dell Hymes June 10 2004 Chienjer Charles Lin 1 Who is Dell Hymes 1927 Commonwealth Professor ofAnthropology Emeritus PhD Indiana University 1955 dhymesadelphianet Quoted from his webpage httpwwwvirginiaeduanthrodhymeshtml I never know what to say when someone asks whatl have done and do So much of it has depended and depends on circumstances I have never done anything I would myself describe as theoretical or ethnographic in a strict sense of either term although I have often written about ideas and spent a fair amount of time hanging around Indians lam interested in what is done in the study of the use of language oral narrative and poetry the history of anthropology and linguistics Native Americans theology Increasingly I have been focussing on the analysis of oral narratives bringing out what turns out to be organization in terms of lines and groups of lines verses and stanzas in effect not paragraphs The entry for 39Poetry39 in the Journaof Linguistic Anthropology 912 1913 2000 addresses this Such interpretation has proven valuable to members of Native American communities from which such texts have come But I have also provided a new introduction somewhat autobiographical for Reinventing Anthropology recently reprinted What39s interesting is real work I am always interested in combating elitism and narrowness and the playing of 39Western mind games39 as one friend once put it at the expense of the rest of the world The justification for the existence of anthropology is to find out about the world not produce thirdrate philosophers Two vital issues for the field are a to ensure that anthropologists are the knowledgeable peers of members of any other discipline concerned with peoples and topics anthropologists study and b tojustify scholarship in its relation to the interests and abilities of others Specializations I still know something about the history of anthropology and of linguistics and ethnography of speaking but am actively concerned mostly with verbal traditions and languages of Oregon and Washington Other cases come up as recently Wintu Loon Woman Mohave Kroeber39s texts Saami 39Lapp39 and characteristics of oral epic because of gatherings at Turku 2 The SPEAKING model of speech analysis In order to speak a language correctly one does not only need to learn its vocabulary and grammar but also the context in which words are used In the speaking model the following aspects of the linguistic situation are considered S Setting and Scene The setting refers to the time and place while scene describes the environment of the situation P Participants This refers to who is involved in the speech including the speaker and the audience E Ends The purpose and goals of the speech along with any outcomes of the speech A Act Sequence The order of events that took place during the speech K Key The overall tone or manner of the speech I Instrumentalities The form and style of the speech being given N Norms De nes what is socially acceptable at the event G Genre The type of speech that is being given Hymes Dell Foundations of Sociolinguistics An Ethnographic Approach Philadelphia U of Pennsylvania P 1974 3 In 1964 Gumperz and Hymes edited a special issue of the American Anthropologist which they entitled quotThe Ethnography of Communicationquot It contained numerous articles by leading scholars in the elds of anthropology sociology linguistics philosophy and psychology who addressedthemselyes to the issue ofthe social basis of verbal communication The original publication has since gone out ofpnnt due to its importance and populanty andithas been revised updated and expanded into Directions in siiciiizinguiicici 7712 whogmphy ii aimmnimion 1986 Hymes was inspired by Noam Chomsky s distinction on linguistic cnmpetence and perrnrmance He proposed that we should study the knowledge that people have when they communicateiwhat he calls cnmmunicative cnmpetence Justlike linguistic competence which tells you whether a sentence is grammatical or not communicative competence tells you whether an utterance is appriipriate or not within a situation 0 According to Chomsky 1965 Linguistic theory is primarily aboutthe language of an ideal speakerrhearer in a completely hnmngenenus speech cnmmunity who knows its language perfectly and is unaffected by grammatically irreleyant conditions such as memory limitations distractions shifts of attention andinterest and errors random or characteristic in applying his knowledge of the language in actual performance rthls is the generative linguistic tiadition especially prominent in the USA lt lmgmsnc tempetence intuitinn of an ideal speaker 5 linguistic performance A record ofnatural speech will show numerous false starts deviations from rules changes ofplan in midrcourse and so on Chomsky 1965 31 o Agreeing with Garfinkel 1972 Hymes p 55 says that what to grammaris imperfect or unaccounted for may be artful accomplishment ofsocial act o H meshas acleyeranalo linguistic cnmpetence linguistic perrnrmance lnnatelyrdenved power in the Garden of eating the apple thrusting the perfect Eden speakerrhearer into a fallen world intuition andlinguistic knowledge ofan real speech ofinterlocutors in a social abstract isolated ideal speakerrhearer world internal to linguistic structure external to linguistic structure lan uage form lan ua e function ampuse rammaticalit as a cntenon acceptability as a cntenon East coastlin uistics US West coast lin uistics US Dou las Buil din UA Haury Buildin UA Generative Linguistics Linguistic Anthropology Chomsk ian school Sociolin usitics Functional Lin uistics la langue de Saussure 1a patiize 0 Looking at an idealized simplified abstract system is a scientific consequence that formal linguistics adopts It results in the prestige ofan elegant simple system which claims to be more fundamental to human lifemakmg linguistics an advanced science 0 Some questions you may ask to challenge this assumption Does an ideal speakerhearer exist Is there a homogeneous speech community Does language serve any function other than communication Should language exist if it has no function at all Is there any linguistic structure that is not associated with language use Hymes proposes a theory of language performance ie language use Its criterion is acceptability This theory pursues the modelsrules that underlying people s linguistic performance This is what he calls communicative competence With great ambition Hymes provides a framework to go beyond the distinction between competence and performance since both can be important Hymes asks four questions concerning language and other forms of communication culture 0 To what degree is something formally possible quotSomething possible within a formal system is grammatical cultural or on occasion communicative p66quot 0 To what degree is something feasible in virtue of the means of implementation available psycholinguistic factors such as memory limitation perceptual device what is biologically and psychologically feasible 0 To what degree is something appropriate in relation to a context in which it is used and evaluated 0 To what degree is something in fact done actually performed and what does its doing entail Knowledge of probabilities This has to do with whether something is common or not When something uncommon occurs people may feel strange
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