Chapter 3 Outline: Appreciating Anthropology - Kottak Introduction to Anthropology
Chapter 3 Outline: Appreciating Anthropology - Kottak Introduction to Anthropology SOCA 105
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Shelby Charette on Thursday January 21, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to SOCA 105 at West Virginia University taught by Genesis Snyder in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 350 views.
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Date Created: 01/21/16
Introduction to Anthropology Notes 8/30/2015 Chapter 3: Applying Anthropology Academic Applied – the use of anthropological data, perspectives, theory, and methods to identify, access, and solve contemporary problems o Help make anthropology relevant and useful to the world beyond anthropology o Medical anthropologists have worked as cultural interpreters in public health programs, helping such programs fit into local culture o Development anthropologists work for or with international development agencies o Archaeology is applied in cultural resource management and historic preservation o Biological anthropologists apply their expertise in programs aimed at public health, nutrition, genetic counseling, aging, substance abuse, and mental health o Forensic anthropologist work with the police, medical examiners, the courts, and international organizations to identify victims of crimes, accidents, wars, and terrorism o Linguistic anthropologists have studied physician-patient speech interactions and have shown how dialect differences influence classroom learning. The ethnographic method is a particularly valuable tool in applying anthropology. o Ethnographers study societies firsthand, living with, observing, and learning from ordinary people THE ROLE OF THE APPLIED ANTHROPOLOGIST o Early Applications During WWII, American anthropologists studied Japanese and German culture at a distance in an attempt to predict the behavior of the enemies in the U.S. After that war, applied anthropologists worked on Pacific islands to promote local-level cooperation w/ American policies in various trust territories o Academic & Applied Anthropology Anthropology peaked after WWII, after the baby boom (peaked at 1957), fueling a tremendous expansion of the American educational system Today, applied anthropologists work in extremely varied contexts, including large development organizations, communities and cultural groups, public institutions, government agencies, NGO’s and nonprofit organizations, international policy bodies, and private entities, such as unions, social movements, and increasingly corporations…. o Applied Anthropology Today Introduction to Anthropology Notes 8/30/2015 Modern applied anthropology uses theories, concepts, and methods from anthropology to confront human problems that often contribute to profound social suffering Anthropologists are experts on human problems and social change who study, understand, and respect diverse cultural values Anthropologists are highly qualified to suggest, plan, and implement policies affecting people DEVELOPMENT ANTHROPOLOGY o The branch of applied anthropology that focuses on social issues in, and the cultural dimension of, economic development Development anthropologist don’t just carry out development policies planned by others; they also plan and guide policy o Equity A commonly stated goal of recent development policy is to promote equity Increased Equity means reduced poverty and a more even distribution of wealth.. STRATEGIES FOR INNOVATION o To maximize social and economic benefits, projects must: 1. Be culturally compatible 2. Respond to locally perceived needs 3. Involve men and women in planning and carrying out the changes that affect them 4. Harness traditional organizations 5. Be flexible o Overinnovation o Development projects are most likely to succeed when they avoid the fallacy of overinnovation People usually are willing to change just enough to maintain, or slightly improved on, what they already have… Motives for modifying behavior come from the traditional culture and the small concerns of ordinary life o The goals and values of subsistence producers differ from those of people who work for cash, just as they differ from those of development planners… o Development projects that fail are usually either economically or culturally incompatible… o Underdifferentiation o Seeing less-development countries as all the same; ignoring cultural diversity Introduction to Anthropology Notes 8/30/2015 Often development agencies have ignored huge cultural contrasts and adopted a uniform approach to deal w/ very different societies Most often, the faulty social design assumes either (1) units of production that are privately owned by an individual or a couple and worked by a nuclear family or (2) cooperatives that are at least partially based on models from the former Eastern bloc and Socialist countries o o Indigenous Models o Many governments are not genuinely, or realistically committed to improving the lives of their citizens o Realistic development policies promote change but not overinnovation… Successful economic development projects respect, or at least don’t attack, local cultural patterns… Effective development draws on indigenous cultural practices & social structures… ANTHROPOLOGY & EDUCATION o A field whose research extends from classrooms into homes, neighborhoods, and communities Anthropologists view children as total cultural creatures whose enculturation and attitudes toward education belong to a context that includes family and peers o Sociologists and cultural anthropologists have worked side by side in education research URBAN ANTHROPOLOGY o For centuries, cities have been influenced by global forces Today, media-transmitted images and info play an important role in attracting people to cities People migrate partly for economic reasons, but also to be where the action is… o Over one billion people live in urban slums, mostly w/o reliable water, sanitation, public services, and legal security… o As industrialization and urbanization spread globally, anthropologists increasingly study these processes and the social problems they create Urban Anthropology – anthropological study of cities and urban life o The U.S and Canada have become popular arenas for urban anthropological research on topics such as immigration, ethnicity, poverty, class, and urban violence Introduction to Anthropology Notes 8/30/2015 o Urban v. Rural In any nation, urban and rural represent different social systems Cultural diffusion or borrowing occurs as people, products, images, and messages move from one to the other Migrants bring rural practices & beliefs to cities and take urban patterns back home The experiences and social forms of the rural area affect adaptation to city life. City folk also develop new institutions to meet specific urban needs. An applied anthropology approach to urban planning starts by identifying key social groups in specific urban contexts – avoiding the fallacy of underdifferentiation… Urban applied anthropologists also help people deal with urban institutions, such as legal and social services, with which recent migrants may be unfamiliar… MEDICAL ANTHROPOLOGY is the comparative, biocultural study of disease, health problems, and health care systems. o Both academic and applied, medical anthropology includes anthropologists from all four subfields. Medical anthropology emerged out of applied work done in public health and international development o Medical anthropologists examine such questions as which diseases and health conditions affect particular populations (why?) and how illness is socially constructed, diagnoses, managed, and treated in various societies. o Disease – a scientifically identified health threat caused genetically or by a bacterium, virus, fungus, parasite, or other pathogen. o Illness – a condition of poor health perceived or felt by an individual w/n a particular culture o How can applied anthropologists help improve the health of indigenous peoples? 1. Identify their most pressing health problems. 2. Gather information on possible solutions. 3. Implement solutions in partnership w/ the agencies that are in charge of public health programs for indigenous populations. Introduction to Anthropology Notes 8/30/2015 o Three Basic Theories About the Causes of Illness (According to Foster and Anderson) 1. Personalistic – blames illness on agents, such as sorcerers, witches, ghosts, or ancestral spirits 2. Naturalistic – explains illness in impersonal terms…??? 3. Emotionalistic - assume that emotional experiences cause illness o Health Care Systems – consisting of beliefs, customs, specialists, and techniques aimed at ensuring health and diagnosing and curing illness o Curer – one who diagnoses and treats illness A curer emerges through a culturally defined process of selection (parental prodding, inheritance of the role, visions, dreams, instructions) and training (apprenticeship shamanship medical school) o Scientific Medicine – a health care system based on scientific knowledge and procedures o Western Medicine – Tends to draw a rigid line b/w biomedical and psychological causation… o In the U.S and other developed countries, good health has become something of an ethical imperative. Individuals are expected to regulate their behavior and shape themselves in keeping with new medical knowledge… o Medical anthropology also considers the impact of new scientific and medical techniques on ideas about life, death, and personhood… ANTHROPOLOGY & BUSINESS o For decades, anthropologists have used ethnography to understand corporate settings and business. Ex: Ethnographic research in a factory may view workers, managers, and executives as different social categories participating in a common system o Microenculturation – the process by which people learn particular roles w/n a limited social system The free-ranging nature of ethnography can take the anthropologist back and forth from worker to executive… o Key features of anthropology that are of value to business include: (1) ethnography and observation as ways of gathering data, (2) a focus on diversity, and (3) cross-cultural expertise… Introduction to Anthropology Notes 8/30/2015 PUBLIC & APPLIED ANTHROPOLOGY o Public Anthropology – efforts to extend anthropology’s visibility beyond academia and to demonstrate its public policy relevance Nonacademic publishing, testifying at government hearings, consulting, acting as an expert witness, and engaging in citizen activism, electoral campaigns, and political administrations The stated goals of public anthropology are to engage w/ public issues by opposing policies that promote injustice and by working to reframe discussions of key social issues in the media and by public officials… CAREERS AND ANTHROPOLOGY o o
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