Anatomy and Physiology Notes
Anatomy and Physiology Notes BIOL 119
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ashley Notetaker on Thursday January 21, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 119 at Indiana University Purdue University - Fort Wayne taught by Dr. Marshall/ Dr.Nachappa in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 15 views. For similar materials see Principle Structure and Function in Biology at Indiana University Purdue University - Fort Wayne.
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Date Created: 01/21/16
Introduction to Anatomy and Physiology: Anatomy and physiology: anatomy is the study of the structure shape of the body and its parts and their relationships to one another. Physiology is the study of how the body and its parts work or function. Levels of organization: the simplest level of the structural ladder is the chemical level; this level contains atoms and molecules. Molecules turn into microscopic cells which are found on the cellular level. Tissues are found on the tissue level. Organs on the organ level, then organ systems, and finally the organism; which is on the organismal level. -Basic function of each system: integumentary system- forms the external body covering; protects deeper tissues from injury; location of pain, cutaneous receptors and sweat and oil glands. Difference between life functions and survival needs: Survival needs include nutrients (food), oxygen, water, and the appropriate temperature and atmospheric pressure. Necessary Life Functions include, maintaining boundaries, movement, responsiveness or irritability, digestion, metabolism, excretion, reproduction and growth. Directional terms: These allow medical personnel and anatomists to explain exactly where one body structure is in relation to another. These, include superior, inferior, ventral (anterior), dorsal (posterior), medial, lateral, intermediate, proximal, distal, superficial (external), and deep (internal). Different planes: The three planes are Median (midsagittal), frontal (coronal), and the transverse plan. Two types of bonds/ and difference: Ionic Bonds form when electrons are completely transferred from one atom to another. Covalent Bonds is when molecules in which atoms share electrons, which are covalent molecules. pH: The pH scale is a scale based from one to fourteen where one is a solution that is highly acidic, seven is neutral, and fourteen is highly basic. Anywhere between one and six are classified as acids and eight and fourteen are bases. Cell theory: 1. A cell is the basic structural and functional unit of living organisms. So when you define cell properties you are in fact defining the properties of life. 2. The activity of an organism depends on the collective activities of its cells. 3. According to the principle of complementarity, the biochemical activities of cells are dictated by the relative number of their specific subcellular structures. 4. Continuity of life has a cellular basis. Mitosis: Division of the nucleus; this results in the formation of two daughter nuclei with exactly the same genes as the mother nucleus. The phases include: prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase. Mitosis is basically the same in all animal cells. Types of tissues: Epithelial is the lining, covering, and glandular tissue of the body. Glandular epithelial forms various glands in the body. Covering and lining epithelial covers all free body surfaces and contains versatile cells. One forms the outer layer of skin while the other dips in to line body cavities. Connective connects body parts. It is the most abundant and widely distributed of the tissue types. They are primarily involved in protecting, supporting and binding together other body tissues. Types of connective tissues are bone, cartilage, dense connective tissue, loose connective tissue, and blood. Types of membranes: Epithelial membranes, also called covering and lining membranes, include the cutaneous membrane (skin), the mucous membranes, and the serous membranes. Cutaneous is your skin. Mucous membranes is composed of epithelium, resting on a loose connective tissue membrane called a lamina propria. This membrane lines all body cavities that open to the exterior. Serous membrane is composed of a layer of simple squamous epithelium resting on a thin layer of areolar connective tissue. Serous membranes line body cavities that are closed to the exterior; occur in pairs. Skin: Cutaneous membrane; the skin and its derivatives serve a number of functions, which are mostly protective. Melanin: A pigment that ranges in color from yellow to brown to black, is produced by special spider- shaped cells called melanocytes, found chiefly in the stratum basale. Keratin: A cornified, or hardened substance that is the uppermost layer of the skin, to help prevent water loss from the body's surface. Bones: long bones are typically longer than they are wide. As a rule they have a shaft with heads at both ends. Short bones are generally cube-shaped and contain mostly spongy bone. The bones of the wrist and ankle are short bones. Flat bones are thin, flattened, and usually curved. They have two layers of compact bone sandwiching a layer of spongy bone. Irregular bones are bones that do not fit one of the preceding categories. Marrows: In adults the cavity of the shaft is primarily a storage area for adipose tissue. It is called yellow mellow, or medullary cavity. However in infants, this area forms red blood cells, and red marrow is found there. In adult bones red marrow is confined to cavities in the spongy bone of flat bones and the epiphysis of some long bones. Appendicular and Axial: The appendicular skeleton is the bones of the limbs and the girdles. The axial skeleton is the bones that form the longitudinal axis of the body. Types of fractures: Closed fractures, also known as simple fractures, are fractures that break cleanly but do not penetrate the skin; whereas an open fracture, or compound fracture, is when the broken bone ends penetrate through the skin. There are: comminuted, compression, depressed, impacted, spiral, and green stick fractures. Ribs: Twelve pairs of ribs form the walls of the bony thorax, all the ribs articulate with the vertebral column posteriorly and then curve downward and toward the anterior body surface. The true ribs, the first seven pairs, attach directly to the sternum by costal cartilages. False ribs, the next five pairs, either attach indirectly to the sternum r are not attached to the sternum at all. The last two pairs of false ribs lack sternum attachments, so they are also called floating ribs. Muscle: Skeletal muscles- voluntary; via nervous system controls Cardiac muscles- involuntary; the heart has a pacemaker; also nervous system controls; hormonesSmooth muscles- involuntary; nervous system controls; hormones, chemicals, stretch. Functions of the muscular system: Producing movement is a common function of all muscle types, but skeletal muscle plays three other important roles in the body as well: it maintains posture, stabilizes joints, and generates heat. Skeletal muscles protect fragile internal organs by enclosure. Smooth muscles form valves to regulate the passage of substances through internal body openings, dilate and constrict the pupils of the eyes, and activate the arrector pili muscles that cause our hairs to stand on end. Special movements of muscles: Muscle cells have so especial functional properties that enable them to perform their duties. The first of these is excitability, also termed responsiveness, which is the ability to receive and respond to a stimulus. The second, contractibility, is the ability to shorten when adequately stimulated. This property sets muscle part from all other tissue types. Extensibility is the ability of muscle cells to be stretched, whereas elasticity is the ability to recoil and resume their resting length after being stretched. Naming of muscles criteria: Direction of the muscle fibers; Relative size of the muscle; Location if the muscle; Number of origins; Location of the muscle's origin and insertion. Shape of the muscle; Action of the muscle. Central and Peripheral nervous systems: The central nervous system consists of the brain and spinal cord, which occupy the dorsal body cavity and act as the integrating and command centers of the nervous system. The peripheral nervous system is the part of the nervous system outside the CNS. It consists mainly of the nerves that extend from the brain and spinal cord. Parts of a neuron: Neurons are also called nerve cells, are highly specialized to transmit messages from one part of the body to another. All have a cell body, which contains the nucleus and is the metabolic center of the cell.