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by: Ariane Botero
Ariane Botero
Cal State Fullerton

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don't use this unless you're taking american character with haskins...then i guess go wild
Class Notes
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"So much better than office hours. Needed something I could understand, and I got it. Will be turning back to StudySoup in the future"
Vilma Conroy

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This 0 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ariane Botero on Thursday January 21, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to at California State University - Fullerton taught by in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 28 views.


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So much better than office hours. Needed something I could understand, and I got it. Will be turning back to StudySoup in the future

-Vilma Conroy


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Date Created: 01/21/16
Farewell to ManzanarMaster Notes Background and History A US 1 1870 US Congress granted naturalization rights to whites and blacks which omitted rights to Asian immigrants 2 1911 US Bureau of Immigration and Naturalization orders that only whites and people of African descent can file for citizenship which in turn rejected the Japanese to be naturalized 3 1924 Congress passed an Immigration Act stating that no aliens ineligible for citizenship shall be admitted from entering the US which stopped all immigration from Japan a Originally there wasn t strict immigration laws One of the few major restrictions were disease B Japan 1 1886 Japanese government lifts ban on emigration allowing citizens to move permanently to other countries for the first time a Japan was very keen on maintaining a pure culture and bloonline b Japan allowed this originally because Japan had a high unemployment rate and compromised with the US to allow Japanese workers to work in the USstarting with Hawaii c Many Japanese would work send money then return home Many like Jeanne s dad Ko decided to move to California since there wasn t strict immigration borders at the time d China carved up by Western power so Japan jacked up military to be able to resist 2 1913 Alien Land Bill prevented the Japanese to own land in California a Often got around this by having their white friends sign the leases in their name Which was problematic at times 3 Samuri work was decreasing because of need of rapid industrialization 4 Japanese people were good at farming and or fishing to meet the needs of a large population a Had to create their own occupations such as opening nurseries 5 In WWII Japanese wanted oil from US but over time Japan got more invasive in Asia so US cut off ties Japan attacked Part Pearl Harbor in hopes for US to be weakened in the war which obviously didn t work A Chapter 1What is Pearl Harbor 1 Often hung out at the wharfs in Long Beach in the weekends to watch her father and brothers fish and operate the fishing boats 2 The first weekend of December in 1941 there were 2530 boats in the area ready to leave to the Pacific Ocean a Sunday was the day of Pearl Harbor b Jeanne just turned 7 c Described the clear sky and the blue water as if that day would have been perfect and memorable in a pleasant way 3 Beginning of the story begins on the day of Pearl Harbor Early on Jeanne also shows the dominant role of her father throughout the story by metaphors or family dynamics a Papa loved to give orders He had attended military school in Japan until the age of seventeen and part of him never got over that 4 My oldest brothers Bill and Woody were his crew They would have to check the nets again and check the fuel tanks again and run back to the grocery store for some more cigarettes and then somehow everything had been done and they were easing away from the wharf joining the line of boats heading out past the lighthouse into the harbor a Introduces the dynamic of her brothers not only with the brothers and the father but into the work away from safety 5 There were two boats Nereidwhite low slung w foredeck wheel cabin Papa s favorite and Wakasmaller one kept in Santa Monica where the family lived at the time 6 Papa made a deal with one of the canneries to pay off the boat by percentages of each catch Paps wasn t pleased and prefered to be completely independent a Many other Japanese fisherman were in a similar deal They ideally didn t want to be under contracts of others but still fished together in groups b Many fishers would catch fish share nets and radio equipment but also was competitive to get the most C 7 Fishermen do not have a designated time that they would be gone for They would be gone to go fish anytime between a couple of days to a month 8 Whenever the fishermen were ready to leave the wharf all the women including Jeanne Bill and Woody s wives and the mother would stand at the wharf as they leave to wave them goodbye even when they cannot see each other It was a duty either to wish them good luck or to ward off bad luck 9 While watching the men drift off the horizon on the particular warm December day the women would wait until the boats disappeared but on the 7th the boats never left a But this time they did not disappear They kept floating out there suspended as if the horizon had finally become what it always seemed to be from the shore the sea s limit beyond which no man can sail 10 We watched and waited and when the boats were still half a mile off the lighthouse a fellow from the cannery came running down the wharf shouting that the Japanese had just bombed Pearl Harbor Mamajust yelled at him What is Pearl Harbor But he was just running along the docks like Paul Revere bringing the news and didn t have time to explain 11 That day Papa had to burn the valuable Japanese flag from Hiroshima and many documents It didn t really help him because he knew that the FBI were targeting the Japanese with a fishing license in fear that they would have connections with the enemy ships off shore 12 2 weeks later Paps was taken away by the FBI There were 500 Japanese residents in Terminal Island and each households were violently ransacked everyone was interrogated for their loyalty to the Emperor Most households had shortwave radios and that was seen as a threat to be able to communicate to the enemies Most of the agents that came by were paranoid about everyday household items 13 If Papa was trying to avoid arrest he wouldn t have gone near that island But I think he knew it was futile to hide out or resist The next morning two FBI men in fedora hats and trench coats like out of a thirties movieknocked on Woody s door and when they left Papa was between them He didn t struggle There was no point to it He had become a man without a country The land of his birth was at war with America yet after thirtyfive years here he was still prevented by law from becoming an American citizen He was suddenly a man with no rights who looked exactly like the enemy About all he had left at this point was his tremendous dignity 14 Mama knew that Paps was being taken to the interrogation center right there on the island Some were released but 2 3 days went by without word except that he was taken into custody and shipped out In the Santa Monica paper K0 was arrested for delivering oil to Japanese submarines offshore a This put Mama in a vulnerable and horrifying position Jeanne never saw her mother cry so hard which was the marking of a terrible time for the family b Jeanne didn t cry about Ko until she saw him a year later B Chapter 2 Shikata Ga Nai 1 After Ko s disappearance the family was moving from Santa Monica to Terminal Island where Woody and Jeanne s older sister already lived 2 When Jeanne was born K0 was farming in lnglewoodthen began fishing in Ocean Park Their house was a big house with a fireplace a block away from the beachA s note wtf that sounds nice af lucky a In Santa Monica they were the only Japanese family in the neighbourhood which Ko prefered because he didn t want to be labeled or grouped b Very individualistic like a true American This quality went against the Japanese culture of groups and kinships 3 At this point as long as the family remained together Mama would feel better She and the family moved to Terminal Island where there was a larger diversity of Asian populations including many Japanese families This also helped Mama s fear of being isolated racially 4 For Jeanne it was a reckoning experience because not only has she had almost no exposure to other Japanese families in a dense population but Ko internally created the fear of other Asians in her at such a young age a One of his threats to keep us younger kids in line was I m going to sell you to the Chinaman It was so bad that Jeanne screamed and got scared of a blonde girl in kindergarten because her eyes were slanted The fear of Asian faces still stayed with Jeanne in Terminal Island 5 After moving to Terminal Island mom had to start working right away Her and ChizuWoody s wife would be in the canneries to process the fish after the boats return 6 Their house in Terminal Island was a migrant workers house because it was a terrible barrack with wooden floors 7 Traditional rivalry between Chinese and Japanese Within races there are regional differences 8 What made Jeanne uncomfortable was how the Japanese were in the area They were bluecollar loud and exclusionary families that only followed a particular dialect of Japanese a The people around us were hardworking boisterous a little proud of their nickname yogore which meant literally uncouth one or roughneck or deadend kida rough fisherman s language full of oaths and insultsThey would swagger and pic on outsiders and persecute anyone who didn t speak as they didThey were tough and mean like ghetto kids anywhere b Those kids that bullied Jeanne never actually attacked her but the fear of being attacked and isolated was horrid enough It was a clash of culture Japanese vs JapaneseAmerican c Until she was older she never understood why she was bullied But it was the disconnection of language and culture that separated them In a time of war and racial discrimination the tensions within populations grew It was a fight to either assimilate or maintain Japanese culture 9 After being in Terminal Island for 2 months navy cleared Japanese people from living near the ports even though most of the Japanese there were Americanborn andor citizens a At the time it was Mama Jeanne and 3 other siblings along with her maternal Granny who was almost blind b On February 25 1942 the government gave the family 48 hours to pack up and leave 10 Secondhand dealers scout Terminal Island for goods and furniture since there were rumors of mandatory evacuations They usually offered insultingly low prices for even valuable items Mama left most of her possessions in Ocean Park except for her pottery silver heirloomslike kimonos brought from Granny in Japan tea sets lacquered tables and an old set of china a When leaving Woody s car was crammed with boxes luggage and kids that Mama had to sell the china b One of the dealers offered her 15 for the entire set when she believed that it should be at least 200 She was so overwhelmed that she smashed it c Ever since losing everything and having no sense of control it would make sense that she broke the only thing that she was able to control so that way no one else can profit from her misery 11 Boyle Heights had a lot of Mexicans but many groups from Eastern Europe Asians Central America Jewish etc a Jeanne still faced racial hostility Lecture Notes A Japanese Compared to America 1 Japanese immigrants coming to America is similar to Chinesein terms of coming in large s which occurred in the 2nd half of the 1800 s a Japan attempts to adapt to rapid Western industrial change b Many people were pushed out of Japan to US for opportunity c China carved up by Western power so Japan jacked up military to resist 2 Samurai work was decreasing because of need of rapid industrialization for weapons a Unemploymentpolitically screwed b Japanese were protective to keep citizens inside the country c Saw the need for utilityAmerican needed workers particularly in Hawaii 3 US and Japan agreed for citizens to work in Hawaii temporarily Money send to employees and their families in Japan a Some Japaneses went on a boat from Hawaii to US 4 Japanese people were known to be excellent at farming and or fishing based on the need to meet demands of a larger population a Exclusionary laws against Asians not allowed to buy land b Occupations branched out one of them opening nurseries B Moving to the Desert 1 Family ordered to go to collections centers to be processed then go elsewhere Most people there were families 2 Jeanne was one of the youngest so the adults tried to not freak out She remembered that she got a new coat imagined that it was an adventure 3 Manazar looked like a depressing military place a No kitchens or places designated for families b When getting off the bus they were given a meal of rice with apricot syrup poured over it Japanese viewed rice as savory so they hated it 4 Most people in the detention camps didn t resist in order to be peaceful America came to be by violent rebellion Protests are part US a People in camps had 2 options Resistutter violation of the Constitution or making the best of it sooner they appear nonthreatening sooner they can go b Japanese Americans were a small minority so protesting would not have been effective especially in time of war c After camps people had their stuff repossessed difficult for entrepreneurs 5 They took my toys 6 Ko s life was over after the camps 7 Jeanne s family lived in barracks There had to be blankets to set up visual privacy People were often cold a Over time the barracks were easier to deal with b Rural Americans depended on delivery C Life in Camps 1 Almost immediately family separated to do their own thing Mom was a nutritionist but kids were freeranged 2 Compares meals in camps to meals in Venice Beach a Family and friends used to sit around a big round tables where conversations were a huge part of the meals b It s hard to do in camps So they ate generationally Kids ate together quickly then get a second meal in other mess halls Teenagers men women etc sit with their own demographic c Disintegration of the family 3 Sense of place disrupted by lack of family time 4 Jeanne became aware of the world around her in camps Since she was left on her own to walk around and observe what adults were doing a At first didn39t have to go to class but went to an orphanage ran by the Catholic Church nunsmarried nulls who actually specialize in missionary work 5 To be a JapaneseAmerican you re always considered foreign a Assumed to married nulls to the orphanages when most of the kids were American 6 Jeanne was fascinated with being Catholic starting with the stories of Saints and Martyrs Her family was culturally Buddhists but did not practice daily a Other flirtations with religion such as wanting to be Catholic to be able to wear the fst Communion dresses 7 Nurses had a severe look that made them look like theatrical reptiles 8 Jeanne signed up for traditional Japanese classes with an old Geisha Since all of the teachers and students spoke Japanese it was difficult to fit in 9 Instead Jeanne became interested in baton twirling because it made her American and she wanted to fit in 10 A year later after Ko s disappearance he finally returns to the camp When he got off the bus Ko looked much older Jeanne was the fst to hug him She then realised that she really missed him D About Ko 1 Ko s family owned a tea shop but before were prestigious samurais warriors a Ko entered the Japanese army but failed So he borrowed money from his aunt to go to Hawaii b However once he got Hawaii he bought a suit in an attempt to stand out from other workers Which works because he was able to land a job as a house servant in the Main Lands 2 Jeanne expresses disappointment because he could never finish what he wanted to do If he had the focus and dedication to stick things out in tough times he could be successful at anything


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