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Chem 113, Week 1 notes

by: Alexis Darling

Chem 113, Week 1 notes CHEM 113

Marketplace > Colorado State University > CHEM 113 > Chem 113 Week 1 notes
Alexis Darling
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First textbook notes for the semester!
General Chemistry II
Ingrid Marie Laughman
Class Notes




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This 1 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alexis Darling on Thursday January 21, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CHEM 113 at Colorado State University taught by Ingrid Marie Laughman in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 76 views.


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Date Created: 01/21/16
12.1­12.2 Spontaneous reactions simply need to be started with some added energy but then  continue to react with no outside help until a reactant runs out. Such reactions may occur at any  speed and may be exothermic or endothermic. While most spontaneous reactions are exothermic, certain endothermic reactions result in products which allow their particles to move more freely  than in their reactant form, and therefore continue reacting to products naturally (spontaneous).  This increased movement relates to entropy, which is how evenly distributed energy is in  a system. According to the second law of thermodynamics, entropy in a closed system always  increases, meaning energy becomes more diffused, through any spontaneous reaction. This  results in the leveling of temperature between hot and cold objects/substances and the spreading  of two different gases to create a uniform mixture. Statistically, it is most likely that two gases  will exist distributed evenly throughout their entire volume. Boltzmann found that entropy equals the natural log of the particles’ momentum (W)  times his constant, which is derived from the gas constant divided by Avogadro’s number.  Accessible microstates are the many positions and speeds that any particles in a thermodynamic  system may be at when at a certain temperature. Altogether, the microstates form macrostates,  whether being separate or mixed. Because there are more options of microstates for the particles  to create a mixed macrostate, being mixed is much more likely and therefore has higher entropy. The third law of thermodynamics describes the theoretical state of having zero entropy in  which all particles remain perfectly still and aligned as a crystalline solid at the temperature of  absolute zero.


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