Lifespan Development Week 1 Notes
Lifespan Development Week 1 Notes PSY 2603 001
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This 0 page Class Notes was uploaded by sarahrichmondOU on Thursday January 21, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 2603 001 at University of Oklahoma taught by Lara Mayeux in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 28 views. For similar materials see Lifespan Development in Psychlogy at University of Oklahoma.
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Date Created: 01/21/16
Lifespan Development Week 1 Notes 393 What is development 0 Simplest way to explain it quotchange over timequot oz 3 levels of studying development 0 Identifying changes 0 WHAT is happening 0 We can observe document amp describe these changes 0 Processes underlying these changes 0 HOW amp WHY are these changes happening 0 Strategies the ways in which individuals create their own change 0 What is the person doing to further her own development 0 Even infants have certain ways of interacting with the world that bring knowledge 393 Lifespan What does it mean 0 Traditional approach to development 0 Little attention to prenatal development 0 Focus primarily is on infancyadolescence Not study change during adulthood because it is assumed no change occurred 0 Aging viewed as period of decline losing function health etc o Lifespan approach to development 0 ALL phases of life are studied 0 Continuous developmental change from conception to death Sub elds like geriatric psychology 0 Human development is multidimensional development occurs in many different domains all at the same time 0 Human development is also multidirectional sometimes development means we gain a skill or add an ability but sometimes development means we lose something like strength or bone density 0 Sometimes losing something leads to a gain infants are born being able to distinguish every sound but that is lost as they develop but this is a positive thing because they are able to learn our language Plastic in uencedchanged by external factors 0 Speci cally brain development Contextual we are the product of our environment Broader patterns o Multidisciplinary there a lot of different elds that contribute to what we know about developmental psychology oz Guiding Issues in the Study of Lifespan Development 0 Nature amp Nurture what drives change our genes or our environment 0 Both our genes AND our environment in uence our development 0 They work together 0 Stability amp Change 0 Continuity amp Discontinuity Continuous development gradual smooth change over time Discontinuous development stages infancy childhood adolescence adulthood random massive cognitive leap and you re now in a new stage Focus would be on the fact that a baby started walking rather than the small gradual steps that led to the baby walking It s all about how and how often observations are made 393 Studying change over time 0 Experiments have to be set up carefully We want to be able to observe the actual process of how individuals change from one age to the next 0 Crosssectional design looking at people who differ on one key characteristic such as age at one speci c point in time 0 Ex grades 3 5 7 9 all interviewed in one year 0 Big disadvantage to this design you re not really documenting true developmental change across ages because it is all done at one point in time Advantage doesn t take long 0 Not ideal 0 Longitudinal design 0 Ex same 3rCI graders repeatedly interviewed in grades 3 5 7 9 Advantage can actually look at the development over time Disadvantage takes years expensive 0 Sequential design Combines crosssectional amp longitudinal Recruiting 3rCI amp 5th graders the next year go back and recruit them as 5th amp 7th graders 0 Nice compromise between the two oz Ethics need to keep experiments ethical amp protect subjects 0 APA has guidelines Dictates how we interact with subjects 0 Each university has an IRB Institutional Review Board 0 Main purpose of IRB protect human subjects at the university IRB is particularly strict about research on kids 0 Minimal risk amp manageable Won t cause harm o Considerations 0 Does the research pose risk 0 Privacy amp con dentiality maintained at all times 393 Theoretical Perspectives on Development 0 Behaviorism Children as passive participants in their development 0 Children can only do what their environments direct them to do 0 Most responses are due to quottrainingquot 0 Classical conditioning Physiological emotional responses can be quottrainedquot Ivan Pavlov and the salivating dog trained a dog to be scared of the sound of a metronome by turning on metronome then administering a shock to the dog Dog associates sound of metronome with pain ofshock Even when not shocked dog still freaks out at sound of metronome because it expects the shock john B Watson s studies with Little Albert Infant is stimulated with a loud sound as animal is presented Infant associates loud sounds with animals Results in infant being afraid of animals Operant Conditioning Humans are trained by the consequences of their behavior 0 Rewarded will repeat 0 Punished will not repeat 0 BF Skinner Put his kids in quotskinner boxesquot amp even encouraged others to do it 0 Social Cognitive Theory 0 Behavior cognitions amp environment all in uence behavior Observational learning 0 Children learn by imitating their parents amp other role models Bandura s Bobo dolls o Took kids into room with toys told some kids they could play with any toy and told some kids they couldn t An adult came in amp starting punching Bobo doll as kids watched o The kids that were told they could play with any toy didn t show much aggression toward Bobo doll The frustrated kids that couldn t play with any toy imitated what the adult did and punched the Bobo doll
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